Program - Single Session


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P
Poster Session

Room: Grand Ballroom South, Renaissance

19:00 - 21:00



P.1   Climate Change RISING SEAWATER TEMPERATURE ON THE BENTHIC SHRIMP ASSEMBLAGES STRUCTURE IN SUBTROPICAL COASTAL WATERS–AN EIGHT-YEAR INVESTIGATION. CHEN HSU-SEN*, Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan; WEN TA-CHIEH, R/V Ocean Researcher I, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan; CHEN KUO-SHU, Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan; CHEN CHIEE-YOUNG, Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, 81157 Taiwan; CHEN MENG-HSIEN, Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan

This study aimed to understand the influence of rising seawater temperature on the species composition of benthic shrimp assemblages in subtropical coastal waters. Shrimp specimens were collected by a beam trawl onboard R/V Ocean Researcher III in coastal waters off Erren River (ER) and Kaoping River (KP) at depths from 15 to 25 m during two survey periods (2002-2004 vs. 2007-2010) in southwestern Taiwan. Abundance-weighted community temperature index (CTI) was used to elucidate the temperature performance of the assemblage. The results show that the shrimp assemblages were changed in (1) reducing the species number, (2) disappearance of cold-water dwelling species, and (3) shifting the dominant species ranks. The number of species decreased from 22 to 18 and from 22 to 13 in ER (higher latitude) and KP (lower latitude) sites, respectively. The relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of the warm-water dwelling species, such as Metapenaeopsis palmensis, Metapenaeus affinis, Metapenaeus ensis, increased, whereas the cold water species, such as Metapenaeopsis dalei and Trachysalambria curvirostris, decreased in 2007-2010. The rising CTI also revealed that the dominance of warm-water dwelling species increased and became a warm-water species dominant assemblage for both ER and KP. The above results suggest that rising seawater temperature, which could be attributed to global warming, might induce tropicalization and simplification of benthic shrimp assemblages in subtropical waters.


P.2   Climate Change THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF UCIDES CORDATUS (LINNAEUS, 1763) IN A CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIO. MAROCHI M.Z.*, Biosciences Institute, São Paulo State University, São Vicente, SP 11330900 BR; COSTA T.M., Biosciences Institute, São Paulo State University, São Vicente, SP 11330900 BR

Climate change already affects the marine environment. One of the main effects is the increase of coastal waters temperatures. Consequently, it can affect the stability of populations. In this sense, our aim was assess how the increase of ocean water temperature (based on IPCC predictions) may affect the coastal environment and population dynamics, using as model organism the semiterrestrial crab Ucides cordatus. Thus, we evaluated 1) the survival and duration of larval development until zoea III stage and 2) the morphological variation. We hypothesized that the survival rate will decrease in warmer temperatures and affect the development duration and morphology. Zoea I larvae (396) from six females were individualized in 5 ml acrylic plates with artificial sea water (salinity 30) and submitted to three water temperatures: 25°C (control), 27°C and 29°C until they reach zoea III stage. Daily the zoea larvae were fed and the water was changed. Results revealed influence of water temperature during larval development from zoea I to zoea III in survival rate, duration of larvae development and morphology. The survival rate was lower in warmer temperatures (27°C and 29°C) accompanied by reduced development time and morphological variation. These results confirm our initial hypothesis, and, in summary, if the IPCC predictions for ocean superficial waters temperature increase occurs, a reduction in colonization rate (by new offspring) and consequently in population size is expected. Therefore, our results reveal a negative effect during larval development of Ucides cordatus caused by water temperature increase.


P.3   Climate Change TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT ENERGETIC DEMANDS AND FOOD ACQUISITION IN THE MARINE ISOPOD IDOTEA EMARGINATA. GUTOW L.*, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, GERMANY; KELLERMANN R., Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, GERMANY; WANG H.-Y., Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, GERMANY; LANNIG G., Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, GERMANY

Temperature is a major driver of physiological processes on all levels of biological organization. Accordingly, in the light of global climate change, studying the performance of marine species at different temperatures is becoming increasingly important to understand upcoming changes in ocean ecosystems. Small herbivorous crustaceans are important trophic links in coastal marine food webs. They consume considerable amounts of marine primary production. Simultaneously, they provide an important food resource for predators from higher trophic levels, including commercially important fish species. We studied energetic requirements and food acquisition in the marine isopod Idotea emarginata from the North Sea. In laboratory experiments, the isopods were maintained for three days at different temperatures (5 to 25°C). The respiration of I. emarginata increased continuously with temperature, indicating high energetic demands at elevated temperatures. Food consumption also increased from low to moderate temperatures but dropped at high temperatures, indicating that the rates of secondary somatic processes are decreased to safeguard oxygen supply to fundamental metabolic processes. However, a lower food uptake may result in a progressive shortage of carbohydrates to sustain elevated levels of cellular metabolism at high temperatures. Our results indicate an increasing mismatch between energetic demand and supply in small marine invertebrates due to rising seawater temperatures.


P.4   Climate Change CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS EFFECTS ON A CORAL REEF PERACARID COMMUNITY. ARAÚJO-SILVA C.L.*, Department of Zoology, Center of Biosciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, PE, 50670-420, BR; SANTOS P.J.P, Department of Zoology, Center of Biosciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, PE, 50670-420, BR

This study aimed to test experimentally the effects of three different climate change scenarios on the structure of macrofaunal peracarid community. Samples were taken from artificial substrate units (ASUs), colonized by macrofauna from the coral reef subtidal zone of Serrambi beach (Brazil). In the laboratory, the ASUs were exposed to control (Ctrl) treatment and three climate change scenarios (Sc.) (increase of Tº [0.6, 2, and 3º C], pH drop [0.1, 0.3, and 0.7 units]), and collected after 15 and 29 d of exposure. Peracarids showed significant sensitivity in the first 15 d of exposure in Sc. III. Scenario III together with Sc. II changed significantly the community after 29 d. Compared to control treatments, Amphipoda presented higher density in the less severe scenario (Sc. I) after 15 d but was negatively affected by scenarios II and III on both times. Tanaidacea also increases when exposed to Sc. I but contrarily to Amphipoda remained with higher density even after 29 d. Isopoda and Cumacea responded negatively to all scenarios. SIMPER analyses showed that dissimilarities were greatest between Ctrl and Sc. III, particularly after 29 d. Elasmopus longipropodus and Condrochelia dubia greatly contributed to these dissimilarities. These outcomes highlight the importance to study the climate change effects for benthic peracarids, especially to those that incubate their eggs. This characteristic decreases migration potential and hence could reduce ability to disperse as a response to a changing environment.


P.5   Climate Change EFFECTS OF INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS AND INCREASED POPULATION DENSITY ON VITELLOGENESIS IN INTERTIDAL CRABS P. CINCTIPES AND P. MANIMACULUS. Sayavong Nathan*, Department of Biology, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740; Gunderson A.R.; Stillman J.H.; Tsukimura B

Climate change via anthropogenic activities is causing ever rising temperature changes, affecting community dynamics in the rocky intertidal. Physiological stress from increased temperature may force heat-stressed species to move into cooler environments. As a result, interspecific interactions and increased population density may threaten the fitness of both species involved through increased behavioral conflicts. Reproductive output can be measured through the concentration of a yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg) and may be used as a measure of fitness in the crab species. The development of the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in our lab has allowed to quantify Vg concentration in the hemolymph of the crabs (Delmanowski et al 2017). To investigate the effects of species interactions and increased population density, P. cinctipes and P. manimaculus were collected from November 2017 through February 2018 and were put into interaction treatments. Hemolymph samples were taken from each crab before and after a seven-day heat and density stress treatment. To quantify the effects of both treatments, the ELISA was used to quantify hemolymph levels of Vg before and after treatment/control. Increased interspecific species interactions (higher densities) decreased Vg levels and thermal stress decreased Vg levels in P. cinctipes. These data suggest that P. cinctipes relocation due to thermal stress places these crabs at higher densities with an interspecific grouping of crabs, appears to decrease Vg levels, suggesting a decline in reproductive output. Energy typically used towards reproduction, appears to be redirected to competition.


P.6   Climate Change CRAB ASSEMBLAGES CHANGES IN RELATIVE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE COASTAL WATERS OFF SOUTHWESTERN TAIWAN. CHEN TC*, Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan; CHEN MH, Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan; MENG PJ, Department of Biology, National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, 94450 Taiwan; CHEN CY, Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, 81157 Taiwan; CHEN KS, Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan; CHEN HS, Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan

Benthic crabs were collected at depths ranging from 12 to 31 m using a beam trawl onboard R/V Ocean Researcher III off two coastal areas, namely Cigu and Jiading, southwestern Taiwan in the periods of 2006–2010 and 2016–2017. Crabs of 4,358 individuals belonging to 11 families, 45 identified species, were collected. More specifically, 37 crab species belonging to 10 families were recorded from 2006 to 2010 in the two study areas, and 5 and 3 species of new records were collected off Cigu and Jiading, respectively, during the period of 2016–2017. The total numbers of identified crab species were 22 off Cigu and 36 off Jiading. The most dominant species by abundance off Cigu from 2006 to 2010 was Portunus argentatus (43%), and changed to P. sanguinolentus (26%) in the period of 2016–2017. Nevertheless, P. hastatoides was consistently the most dominant species off Jiading during the two study periods (72% vs. 74%). Cluster analysis revealed two geographic crab assemblages, namely the Cigu group and Jiading group. Portunus argentatus tended to increase in abundance with depth, whereas P. sanguinolentus was abundant with decreasing depth, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, as well as increasing of suspended particles. Portunus hastatoides preferred living in the habitat substrate of finer sand grain size. Five abiotic factors, including depth, salinity, suspended particles, dissolved oxygen, and grain size of substrate shaped the crab assemblages in the subtropical coastal waters.


P.7   Conservation Biology PARAMETOPELLA CYPRIS (AMPHIPODA: STENOTHOIDAE), A NEW SNEAKY ALIEN IN A NORTH ADRIATIC LAGOON. DESIDERATO A.*, Graduate Program in Zoology (PGZOO), Universidade Federal do Paranà, Curitiba, Brazil; Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali (BiGeA) and Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), University of Bol; MUCCIOLO S., Graduate Program in Zoology (PGZOO), Universidade Federal do Paranà, Curitiba, Brazil; Laboratório de Bentos, Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Pontal do Paraná, Brazil; Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geo; TURICCHIA E., Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali (BiGeA) and Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy; PONTI M., Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali (BiGeA) and Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy; ABBIATI M., Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali (BiGeA) and Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy; KRAPP-SCHICKEL T., Forschungsmuseum A. Koenig, Bonn, Germany.

Pialassa Baiona is a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon located about 60 km south of the famous Venice lagoon. It is affected by many types of anthropogenic disturbances: influx of nutrients and pollutants from civil and industrial wastewater treatment plants, warming from power plant effluents, fishing, shipping and hunting activities, dredging operations, and invasion of non-native species due to the connection with the sea through the Ravenna port channel. During the biennial monitoring of the status of the environmental quality of the lagoon through the analysis of the recruitment of the fouling communities, the amphipod Parametopella cypris Holmes, 1905, was found. So far this species had only been recorded from the US east coast, from Cape Cod to Florida, where it is found in association with hydrozoans. In Pialassa Baiona this amphipod was found in August 2014, together with the hydrozoan Ectoplauera crocea (Agassiz, 1862) and the bryozoan Amathia verticillata (Delle Chiaje, 1822). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of P. cypris in Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Given the small number of specimens found, the establishment success of this species in Mediterranean lagoons is to be assessed. Also, its presence may have been overlooked, because of its similarity to the co-occurring “cosmopolitan” species Stenothoe valida. In order to facilitate the identification of P. cypris, we provide a detailed illustration of the male, and of distinctive traits from congeneric species, as well as of S. valida.


P.8   Conservation Biology ENSEMBLE FORECASTING OF THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE INVASIVE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB, ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS. ZHANG ZHIXIN*, Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, TOKYO 108-8477 JAPAN; CAPINHA CÉSAR, CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, VAIRÃO, PORTUGAL; WETERINGS ROBBIE, Cat Drop Foundation, DRACHTEN, NETHERLANDS; XI DAN, Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Universities of Shandong (Weifang University), College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Weifang University, WEIFANG, CHINA; LÜ HONGJIAN, Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, CHONGQING, CHINA; YU LINGYUN, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, GUANGZHOU, CHINA

Invasive alien species have posed substantial threats to freshwater ecosystems and are always difficult and cost-intensive to eradicate once established. Therefore, it is of great importance to identify their potential distribution and take preventive actions. Species distribution modelling has been regarded as a powerful tool to identify areas that provide suitable environmental conditions for the establishment of invaders. In this study, we developed an ensemble species distribution model for the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) by using 188 worldwide occurrence records and 11 environmental variables to predict its global potential distribution in freshwater habitats. The ensemble model showed high predictive performance and indicated that annual mean temperature was the most important environmental variable that limits the distribution of this invasive crustacean. The model successfully predicted the known distribution of this crab in its native range and invasive range and suggests that this pest has not fully realised its potential distributions in Europe and North America. Our model also predicted some additional suitable areas (Japan, part of South America, Australia, and New Zealand) where this crab has not yet been observed. We propose several management strategies to control this invasive crab. Eradication programmes should be performed in the known distribution in Europe and North America. Precautionary preventative management measures should be implemented in the unoccupied suitable areas. In addition, appropriate ballast water management strategies should be developed to prevent the further introduction of this pest via ballast water discharge.


P.9   Conservation Biology CROSSING EXPERIMENT AND GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF GENUS NEOCARIDINA【Italic】IN JAPAN. NIWA N*, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 JAPAN; SHIGETO K, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804 JAPAN; HASHIMOTO K, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804 JAPAN; SAKAGUCHI T, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804 JAPAN; HOSHINO E, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804 JAPAN; MIHARA M, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804 JAPAN

Neocaridina denticulata denticulata【Iralic】(De Haan, 1849) (Caridea: Atyidae) is a freshwater shrimp distributed in western Japan used as live bait for fishing. Due to recent decrease in population density, some unknown species of Neocaridina 【Iralic】spp. have been imported from China and Korea, and they can be bought at pet shops and Internet websites. Recently, a closely morphological form of an alien Neocaridina【Iralic】 species was reported intermingling in various parts of Japan. To observe the ability of hybridization between the native and alien species, lab work was conducted. Due to absence of morphological character difference, genomic analysis was made, and a family tree was obtained. The observed shrimp were collected from Sugo River of Hyogo Prefecture and Hayafuro River of Okayama Prefecture. Molecular work was performed on a male-parent from Sugo River (K-11 M), which is considered an alien or a hybrid of an alien species and a Japanese pure-line, and a female-parent from Hayafuro River (K-11 F), which is considered a Japanese pure-line, using 16S rRNA and CO-I genes. Offspring (F1) examination using molecular work confirmed hybridization within the native species and between the alien and the pure-line species, parent (K-11 M) belongs to Clade2, while F1 and parent (K-11 F) belong to Clade3. The molecular work results showed evidence of at least two Japanese subspecies populations, which belong to the genus Neocaridina【Iralic】. These species existed in Japan before introduction of the alien Neocaridina【Iralic】species.


P.10   Conservation Biology THE IMPACT OF INVASIVE PIGS (SUS SCROFA) ON COCONUT CRABS (BIRGUS LATRO) ON GUAM. BRUNSON C.E.*, University of Guam Marine Laboratory

The coconut crab (Birgus latro) is commonly hunted by locals on Guam to impress friends and family at fiestas. However, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa) appears to be a much more efficient hunter than man. This study sought to measure the impact of pig predation on coconut crab populations in the forests of Guam, Mariana Islands. Surveys were done by baited transect after sunset during the rainy season. Each transect was set with 20 bait stations from 15 to 20 meters apart in karst terrain within limestone forests in both preserve areas and public areas. All coconut crabs were caught and measured. Pig presence was noted by direct sighting or by evidence of their presence such as rooting and tree rubbing. Surveys of coconut crabs in areas with high pig presence found few or no crabs, even while human hunters were restricted from the area. Surveys with low or no pig presence showed higher numbers of crabs, even with human hunters active in the area. Surveys on the National Wildlife Refuge found very low numbers of crabs, which may be attributed to an extremely high feral pig presence due to peripheral fences which trap the pigs within the Refuge.


P.11   Conservation Biology COLOR VARIATION IN FEMALE GREEN CRABS, CARCINUS MAENAS. Lee KT*, Office of Student Scholarship, Creative Activities, and Research, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA

Carcinus maenas, the green crab or shore crab, is a wide-spread invasive species, important in shaping shallow marine communities. Individual crabs come in a range of colors from yellow or light green through orange to dark red. In male crabs, this coloration, which develops during intermolt periods, affects physiological tolerance in individual crabs, their distribution on the shore, their aggressiveness, and their ability to attract mates. Evidence suggests that crabs which are molting frequently, putting their resources into growth, stay light colored, while crabs which are molting infrequently turn red, sacrificing their environmental tolerance for increased mating success. Most of the data on color variation in C. maenas has been collected in male crabs. For many years I have been collecting physiological, ecological and color data on female crabs. Salinity tolerance, distribution on the shore, aggression, and color change over the course of the summer have all been collected via a variety of methods including laboratory studies, behavioral trials, mark-recapture studies, and population sampling. In laboratory studies, red females have decreased physiological tolerance, but do not show increased aggressiveness when compared to green females. In the field, red females are much more common than red males, often outnumbering even green females. Over the course of a summer, the pattern of color change in female crabs differs from the pattern in male crabs. These data show that female crabs show color variation similar to that exhibited by male crabs but with important differences.


P.12   Conservation Biology ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE GIANT SYDNEY CRAYFISH, EUASTACUS SPINIFER USING MOLECULAR APPROACHES. VAN DER WAL C*, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 AUSTRALIA; AHYONG S.T., Marine Invertebrates, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW 2010 AUSTRALIA; HO S.Y.W, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 AUSTRALIA; LO N, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 AUSTRALIA

Freshwater crayfish (Decapoda: Parastacidae) are experiencing significant human-mediated impacts, and are ranked among the five most endangered animal groups. Australia is home to approximately 140 species of crayfish, of which the genus Euastacus is one of the largest. Euastacus are of significant conservation concern owing to a number of key threats including climate change, habitat loss and illegal harvesting. Previous morphological studies have highlighted the difficulties associated with species delimitation in Euastacus. For example, it is unclear whether differences in colour and morphology reflect intraspecific or interspecific variation. In order to assess their biodiversity and conservation status within New South Wales we investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and phylogeny of Euastacus spinifer using mitochondrial and ddRAD nuclear SNP data. We hypothesise that the currently recognised distribution of E. spinifer is inaccurate, and predict that this species represents a species-complex with numerous populations in fragmented habitats. Our analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data revealed strong clustering of individuals on the basis of their geography, with little evidence for gene flow between members of the 5 populations examined. Our results suggest that E. spinifer in its current form likely represents at least 4 distinct species. We are now examining morphological variation among members of the group to explore this possibility in more detail.


P.13   Crustacean Jambalaya CRAYFISH SYMBIONT REPONSE TO INVASION IN THE NORTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. WILLIAMS B.W.*, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Research Laboratory, Raleigh, NC 27699 USA; WEAVER P.G., North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC 27601, USA; WOODSON A., Biological Sciences Department, Meredith College, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA; LUKAS L., North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Research Laboratory, Raleigh, NC 27699 USA; EGLY R., Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 USA; LARSON E.R., Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 USA

Astacoidean crayfishes are known hosts for two groups of obligate ectosymbionts, branchiobdellidan worms and entocytherid ostracods. Recent surveys of crayfishes in the northwestern United States suggest that the decline of the Pilose Crayfish, Pacifastacus gambelii, native to areas of Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, is in large part coincident with introduction and spread of the Northern Crayfish, Faxonius virilis, native to much of the Interior Plains and Great Lakes regions. In this study, we examine specimens of both species of crayfish within the historic native range of P. gambelii to gain insight into host-symbiont response to invasion. We hypothesize three possible scenarios: full community replacement, where F. virilis and its symbionts completely replace P. gambelii and its symbionts; partial replacement, where F. virilis does not carry its symbionts with it, replaces P. gambelii and picks up the native's symbionts, or; host replacement with symbiont extirpation, where F. virilis does not carry its symbionts with it, and replaces P. gambelii with no symbiont transfer. Preliminary results show the latter scenario at the majority of sites where crayfishes were recovered; however, we did observe full or partial community replacement at several sites, including at a single locality where we found F. virilis and P. gambelii codistributed. Our results provide important insight into development and maintenance of short- and long-term host-symbiont associations, and ultimately host and symbiont conservation.


P.14   Crustacean Jambalaya CARCINONEMERTIDAE (NEMERTEA): RIBBON WORMS IN SEARCH OF A FAMILY HISTORY AMONG CRABBY HOSTS. NORENBURG J.L.*, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560 USA; SANTOS C.D., Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560 USA; SCHWARTZ L.C., Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 USA; GOETZ F.E., Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560 USA; MASLAKOVA S.A., Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, University of Oregon, Charleston, OR 97420 USA; WIRSHING H.H., Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560 USA; GONZALEZ V.L., Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560 USA

We used Sanger sequencing data from 5 genes to test monophyly and species-level diversification of Carcinonemertidae (Coe 1902), and to assess the degree of co-evolution of these egg-predators living as obligate symbionts on decapod crustacean hosts. We used transcriptome data and morphology to test phylogenetic rooting of the family. Carcinonemertids, comprising 21 current valid species, are associated primarily with crabs, including almost all sufficiently studied harvested species. To assess genetic diversity and co-evolution with host lineages, we surveyed 68 potential host species, of which 44 are newly recognized as hosts, a 70% increase to the previous number of known hosts. We demonstrate that carcinonemertids are monophyletic and that their genetic diversity is much greater than expected, almost equal to their putative parent suborder. Assessment of co-evolution, however, yields mixed signals and points to the need for much wider taxon sampling of potential hosts. Two multigene studies (Thollesson & Norenburg 2003, Andrade et al. 2014a) confidently place Carcinonemertidae as a sister-clade to the suborder Distromatonemertea. This contrasts sharply with the universally accepted traditional classification placing them within that suborder, which a third multigene study does support (Kvist et al. 2015). Our new phylogenomic data supports the first two studies but, owing to inadequate taxon sampling for transcriptomes, cannot refute the third. Our new confocal microscopical observation of rhynchocoel musculature weakly supports the first two studies. The deep genetic divergence and host distribution of carcinonemertids probably reflects an ancient association with decapod crustaceans but may also reflect an accelerated molecular clock.


P.16   Crustacean Jambalaya REGIONAL VARIATION IN LIFE-HISTORY STRATEGIES OF PENAEIDS AND THEIR RESILIENCE TO CHANGING TEMPERATURES. Koefoed I.K.*, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; Loneragan N.L, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; Kangas K., Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, WA, Australia; Hordyk A., Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Penaeid prawns (or shrimp) are a high-value seafood commodity supporting large industrial-scale and artisanal fisheries around the world. Many of these prawn fisheries are tropical and sub-tropical and are thus potentially affected by rising sea temperatures. Temperature is known to influence the life history of organisms, with the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) and the temperature-size rule (TSR) both predicting that ectotherms grow faster, mature earlier, but reach a smaller size in warmer waters than in cooler waters. However, these predictions have seldom been investigated for penaeids, despite having implications for stock assessment and management, particularly in tropical regions which are often relatively data-poor. A meta-analysis of published life history data for 22 penaeid species (four genera) from around the world was carried out to evaluate how the life history parameters of penaeids vary with temperature (using latitude as a proxy), both between species and within species. This meta-analysis was then used to examine the predictions of the MTE and TSR for the von-Bertalanffy growth parameters Linf and k and two of the Beverton-Holt life history ratios; M/k and Lmat/Linf. Understanding how life history parameters estimated from these ratios compare to the results of empirical studies from different regions and temperatures can facilitate discussion on the use of the Beverton-Holt ratios for informing stock assessments in data-poor penaeid fisheries.


P.17   Crustacean Jambalaya A NEW SPECIES OF THE DEEP-SEA SPONGICOLID GENUS SPONGICOLOIDES (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, STENOPODIDEA) AND A NEW SPECIES OF THE GLASS SPONGE GENUS CORBITELLA (HEXACTINELLIDA, LYSSACINOSIDA, EUPLECTELLIDAE) FROM SEAMOUNT NEAR THE MARIANA TRENCH, WITH A NOVEL C. KOU Q.*, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; GONG L.; LI X.

A new species of the deep-sea spongicolid genus Spongicoloides Hansen, 1908 and a new species of the euplectellid genus Corbitella Gray, 1867 are described and illustrated based on the material recently collected by the ROV 'Faxian' near the Mariana Trench. The new deep-sea spongicolid species can be distinguished from the congeneric species by a series of morphological features and the validity was supported by the molecular phylogenetic analysis. Based on the microscleres of regular hexaster and oxynohexaster, the new sponge species can be distinguished from other Corbitella species easily. The new euplectellid sponge species is the host of the new spongicolid shrimp species and it is the first discovery of the association between the genera Spongicoloides and Corbitella. The present study increased the species diversity of both genera as well as brought insight into the commensal relationships between spongicolid shrimps and their sponge hosts.


P.18   Ecology FRESHWATER DIAPTOMID COPEPODS ON THE ROCKY OUTCROPS OF THE WESTERN GHATS: DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY. KULKARNI M.R.*, Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, INDIA.; PAI K., Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, INDIA.

Rocky outcrops are exposed rock surfaces, often devoid of woody vegetation. Temporary aquatic habitats often form on these outcrops, and despite being globally known to harbour unique biota, they remain largely understudied and neglected. Rocky outcrops also occur in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India (Northern Western Ghats, NWG), a region largely understudied for its invertebrate diversity, especially freshwater micro-crustaceans. The NWG have a geological history influenced by Deccan volcanism ca. 65mya, and comprise of distinct geo-morphological regions. Diaptomid copepods in such habitats were studied to a) document their diversity b) analyse their distribution and ecology and c) highlight their biogeography. Outcrops were classified as High-Level Ferricretes (HLF, >700m), Low-Level Ferricretes (LLF, 0-700m) or Basaltic Mesa (BM, 400-1300m) based on geo-morphological data. Samples (n = 185; 82 sites) collected from temporary habitats on these outcrop types were examined. Exploratory statistical and GIS-based methods were used for data analysis. Twelve species of diaptomid copepods (including three new species), representing eight genera and two subfamilies were observed. Highest species richness was observed on HLF outcrops, often occurring as multi-species (2-4 species) assemblages. Diaptomid fauna varied between outcrop types, and species distributions were influenced by altitude, latitude, electrical conductivity, hydrology and geology. Taxa with Gondwanan, Oriental, Palaearctic and endemic Indian affinities were observed. The studied outcrops face considerable anthropogenic pressures and such studies on their diversity and ecology can prove valuable for habitat conservation programs. We illustrate this using data on distribution, ecology, biogeography and genetics for a recently described diaptomid species.


P.19   Ecology RELATIVE GROWTH OF SWIMMING CRABS (PORTUNIDAE) FROM POTIGUAR BASIN, BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST. ARAUJO M.S.L.C.*, Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil; SILVA E.S., Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil; MATIAS G.F., Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil; ALVES S.M.S., Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil; LUCATELLI D., Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil

This work analyzed the relative growth of swimming crabs in the Potiguar basin, in the Northeast of Brazil. The material was collected in the months of May and November of 2003 and May and June of 2004. Measurements were taken for carapace width (CW), carapace length (CL), abdomen width (AW) in females and chelipod length (CLH) in males, considering CW as an independent variable. A total of 510 specimens were collected, being 176 Callinectes ornatus, 154 Achelous ordwayi, 64 Portunus anceps, 63 A. tumidulus, and 35 A. gibbesii. For C. ornatus, positive allometric growth was observed for CW x CL, in males and females, and for CW x AW and CW x CLH. For A. ordwayi, negative allometric growth was observed for CW x CL, in males and females, but with positive allometric growth for CW x AW and CW x CLH. For P. anceps, negative allometric growth was observed for CW x CL, in males and females, but with positive allometric growth for CW x AW and CW x CLH. For A. tumidulus, positive allometric growth was observed for CW x CL in males and allometric negative growth for CW x CL in females, but with positive allometric growth for CW x AW and CW x CLH. For A. gibbesii allometric positive growth was observed for CW x CL in males and females, and for CW x AW and CW x CLH. The present results provide additional information on the biometry and growth of Portunid crabs.


P.20   Ecology METABOLIC EFFECTS OF A VIRAL INFECTION (CSRV1) ON THE BLUE CRAB CALLINECTES SAPIDUS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. JORGE F.A.MODEL MODEL, J.F.A., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; ÉVERTON L. VOGT VOGT, E.L., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; MATHEUS V. LIMA LIMA, M.V., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; MÁRCIA TRAPP TRAPP, M., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; ERIC J. SCHOTT SCHOTT, E.J., Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences (UMCES), Baltimore-MD, USA; ANAPAULA S.VINAGRE VINAGRE, A.S.*, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil

Basic metabolic parameters are useful indicators of health status, including viral infection. In a previous study (Flowers et al. 2016), Callinectes sapidus Reo-Like Virus (CsRV1) was identified in C. sapidus collected in Southern Brazil. This study was developed in order to identify which metabolites could be affected by CsRV1 infection. Male (n = 26) and female crabs (n = 8) were caught from 2013 to 2015 in Lagoa de Tramandaí estuary (-29.97, -50.15), Brazil. The crabs were kept in tanks (natural photoperiod, 20‰, 25±2°C) and fed with squid. After 14 days, hemolymph and tissue samples were collected. Legs were preserved in 95% ethanol at 4°C and shipped on dry ice to IMET for RNA extraction and analysis of CsRV1 genetic material using RT-qPCR. Samples with greater than 100,000 virus genome copies per mg muscle were considered infected. The levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and total proteins in the hemolymph were determined using commercial enzymatic assays. The levels of glycogen and lipids in the tissues were determined according to Inohara et al. (2015). Data homogeneity was analyzed with Levene test, and afterwards, the data were submitted to Student´s t, 2 way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. In males, CsRV1 decreased glycogen and triglycerides levels in the anterior gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. In females, CsRV1 did not cause any significant difference in the metabolites analyzed. Further studies are necessary and will contribute to understanding the interaction of stress and infection, and the development of sustainable exploitation of this species.


P.21   Ecology AMPHIPODS - TURNING THE WHEEL OF CARBON IN THE DEEP SEA. PEART R.A.*, National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Greta Point, Wellington, NEW ZEALAND; NODDER S.D., National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Greta Point, Wellington, NEW ZEALAND; LÖRZ A-N., CeNak, Zoologisches Institut und Museum, Martin-Luther-King Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, GERMANY

To understand the intricacies of the movement of carbon between surface waters and the ocean seafloor, a time-series project was established in 2000 (-2012), capturing environmental data in subtropical and subantarctic waters off eastern New Zealand. These data are used to understand carbon sequestration via the biological pump, especially the role of pelagic amphipods in modulating the flux of carbon to the deep-sea. These animals were collected as “swimmers” that actively swam (not sunk) into 1500 m-deep, moored mid-water sediment traps and are regarded to be representatives of the resident deep-ocean zooplankton community that utilise the sinking organic material (also collected). Abundance and diversity of the amphipod species/groups, or their ecological responses (i.e., reproductive cycles, feeding niches), is related to variations in surface production and carbon flux. Since many of these pelagic amphipods are preyed on by various fish species, these data will improve food web models of ecosystem structure and functioning. These samples have also provided a wealth of information on amphipod diversity from the “twilight - midnight” zones over depths of the Southwest Pacific that are rarely sampled. The first five years of amphipod samples from the time-series have been investigated, yielding information on amphipod abundance, weight and diversity in proportion to the contents of the traps. Preliminary results are presented along with a correlation analysis between the amphipods collected, organic carbon flux and other environmental variables, related to biophysical (mixed-layer depth, sea-surface temperature, primary production) and climatic processes (El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Southern Annular Mode).


P.22   Ecology Distribution of pelagic shrimps in the Southeast Pacific (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata and Caridea). Guzman G.L.*, Facultad de Recursos Naturales Renovables, Universidad Arturo Prat, Avenida Arturo Prat No 2120, Código Postal 1110939, Casilla de Correos 121, Iquique, Chile; Rivera J., Facultad de Recursos Naturales Renovables, Universidad Arturo Prat, Avenida Arturo Prat No 2120, Código Postal 1110939, Casilla de Correos 121, Iquique, Chile; Escribano R., Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

The knowledge of the mesopelagic fauna in Chile has increased in the last twenty years. At present, 81 species of shrimps have been cited in waters off this country, including the waters surrounding the seamounts of the Salas y Gomez Ridge and the Juan Fernandez submarine dorsal. Most of the available information is based in taxonomic reports and no information about the distribution of this group has been provided. Here, we analyzed the distribution of the pelagic fauna of Shrimps (Caridea and Dendrobranchiata) collected during two surveys offshore of Chile, from about 70ºW to 110ºW and from 27ºS to 33ºS. A total of fourteen species were collected using a Tucker net from zero to 1000 m depth. Seven species of Dendrobranchiata belonging to Sergestidae and Benthesicymidae were found in same proportions, and an additional species of Solenoceridae. Seven species of Caridea, of which five belong to Oplophoridae and two to Pandalidae. Funchalia woodwardii and Gennadas kempi were identified and registered for the first time in this area. We observed a differential distribution in relation to water masses indentified in the study area. Some species were distributed close to the South American coast and seamounts, while others were more oceanic. In the samples, far away from the land masses, only Dendrobranchiates shrimps were observed, whereas in the samples close to land masses both Caridean and Dendrobranchiata shrimps were found. We discuss the distributions of these species in according to those reported in the literature about global biogeographic patterns of epipelagic and mesopelagic fauna.


P.23   Ecology CRUSTACEANS LIBERATE SUBSTANTIEL AMOUNTS OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES . BÖÖK I., Alfred Wegener Institute, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany; SABOROWSKI R.*, Alfred Wegener Institute, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany

Extracellular enzymes are key drivers in the remineralization of organic matter in marine sys¬tems. According to the widespread view such enzymes derive mainly from bacteria. However, a large number of extracellular enzymes are released into the water by invertebrates through “sloppy feeding”, molting, and excretion. These enzymes have the potential to degrade orga¬nic matter and boost subsequent microbial growth. We investigated the extracellular enzyme activities in molts and egesta of different marine invertebrate species with sensitive fluorometric assays. Visualization of enzymes leaking from molts and fecal pellets was achieved by using agarose plates incubated with fluorogenic substrates. 4-methylumbilliferone (MUF) derivatives were used to detect enzymatic activity of selected enzyme classes: MUF-Phosphate for phos¬phatase, MUF-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide for exochitinase. Molts and feces were placed directly on agar plates and enzymatic activity was shown by clear fluorescence signals. Phosphatase activity was present in fecal pellets of isopods (Idotea baltica) in feces of the decapod shrimp (Palaemon varians) and the lobster Homarus gammarus. High chitinolytic activity was found in molts of all three species. The enzymes remained active for up to several days. Subsequent decrease of activity indicates degradation of the enzymes. Our results support the hypothesized important role of extracellular enzymes from marine invertebrates in remineralization processes. Further investigation will focus on the quantifica¬tion and detailed characterization of these proteins to distinguish them from microbial enzymes.


P.24   Ecology SEASONAL EXPRESSION OF DIGESTIVE ENZYME GENES IN THE BROWN SHRIMP CRANGON CRANGON (DECAPODA, CARIDEA). MARTINEZ-ALARCON D.*, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany; TESCHKE M., Alfred Wegener Institute, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany; HAGEN W., University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany; SABOROWSKI R., Alfred Wegener Institute, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany

The brown shrimp Crangon crangon is valuable specie for the North Sea ecosystem, where it is highly abundant and has an important role as a predator and as a prey. It represents an important target in coastal fisheries. Previous studies revealed distinct seasonal pattern in metabolic processes. Activities and numbers of enzyme-isoforms increased during the early summer but were reduced during autumn and winter. The brown shrimp is apparently well prepared to thrive in a highly variable environment. However, it is still unknown, how this species manages to cope with the seasonal environmental changes of the North Sea at the metabolic level. Here we analysed the seasonal gene expression of digestive enzymes in C. crangon. The objective of this research was to learn about the modulation of digestive enzymes in the brown shrimp during the seasons of the year. We found that Trypsin, Cathepsin L and triacylglycerol lipase show differential expression between seasons. None of the enzyme genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism showed seasonal differences. The results here obtained help to better understand about the biochemical strategies that allow C. crangon to inhabit a variable environment.


P.25   Ecology GHOST CRABBING: A STRESSFUL TOURISTIC ACTIVITY FOR OCYPODE QUADRATA. VOGT E.L., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; LIMA M.V., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; MODEL J.F.A., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; SOUZA S.K., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; ROCHA D.S., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; FABRES R.B., Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil; VINAGRE A.S.*, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040170, Brazil

The ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata, found in sandy beaches along the western Atlantic coast, is considered a bioindicator of human impact on sandy beaches. In some beaches, ghost crabbing is considered a familiar nocturnal touristic activity, therefore the aim of this study was to identify the effects of a handling stress protocol on metabolic and physiological parameters. The crabs (n=66), were collected at Quintão (-30.39, -50.29, Brazil) and kept in terrariums (natural photoperiod, 25±2°C, food every other day) for 14 days. After, the crabs were submitted to a handling stress protocol (5 minutes) and recovery (0, 30 or 60 minutes). After each time, haemolymph and tissues samples were collected. Data homogeneity was analyzed with Levene test, and afterwards, the data were submitted to Student´s t, 2 way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Stressed crabs immediately increased hemolymph lactate, returning to basal levels after 60-min recovery. Hemolymph glucose levels increased after 30 and 60-min recovery. Triglycerides levels in the hemolymph decreased after 30 min. The levels of glycogen increased in the muscle after 30 min. CHH and HSP70 expression were not altered. A glucose-sparing effect is suggested as the sum of muscular glyconeogenesis and the use of hemolymph triglycerides. New investigations as to the fate of lactate formed during intense muscle work with longer recovery times are required, as well as gene expression under these new conditions. This work may contribute to the development of new strategies to raise the awareness of the antropogenic activities at the beaches.


P.26   Ecology Multiple spectral channels in branchiopods: Vision in dim light and neural correlates. Lessios N.*, Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, 611 Gould-Simpson, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; Cohen J. H., School of Marine Science and Policy, College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, 700 Pilottown Road, Lewes, DE 19958, USA; Rutowski R. L., School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 USA; Sayre M.E., Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, 611 Gould-Simpson, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; Strausfeld N.J., Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, 611 Gould-Simpson, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

Animals that have color vision possess multiple spectral classes of photoreceptors. For true color vision, species of Pancrustacea (Hexapoda + Crustacea), integrate spectral information in the second and third optic neuropils, and centrally in optic glomeruli. Branchiopod crustaceans possess only two optic neuropils, the lamina and optic tectum but nevertheless express four or more rhabdomeric opsins in their compound eyes. Here we describe experiments and correlative neuroanatomy that explains the retention of chromatic pathways in a simple crustacean visual system. To identify the most likely number of spectral photoreceptor classes in their compound eyes, we used electroretinographic recordings and multi-model inference based on modeled spectral absorptance. Recordings from the retina provide support for four spectral channels. Histological methods were used to characterize parameters that could explain signal summation at low light intensities, incorporating spectral sensitivities. Candidates for spatial summation in the lamina have been resolved using immunocytology as well as selective silver and dye staining to demonstrate systems of terminal collaterals from photoreceptors extending tangentially to provide substrates for photoreceptor signal pooling. We propose that spatial summation from compound eye ommatidia provides sufficient signal for vision at intensities equivalent to those of terrestrial habitats under dim starlight. Our findings suggest four spectral photoreceptor classes have been maintained in these species of Branchiopoda primarily for luminance detection in the absence of optic lobe neuropils used by other pancrustaceans for fine-scale spectral discrimination.


P.27   Ecology ECOLOGY OF SYMPAGURUS PICTUS SMITH 1883 IN THE SOUTHERN GULF OF MEXICO . BARBOSA-NIETO B., Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, México City 04510 México; GRACIA A.*, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, México City 04510 México; VÁZQUEZ-BADER A. R., Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, México City 04510, México

The distribution and abundance of the pagurid S. pictus in the Mexican continental slope (300-1200 m depth) of the Gulf of Mexico (Tamaulipas-Yucatán) was analyzed through seven cruises carried in 2009-2017. Sampling was conducted on board the R/V JUSTO SIERRA of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México using a semi-commercial shrimp trawling net with a 18 m mouth and 4.5 cm mesh. S. pictus was found along the whole gulf in a bathymetric range of 313-813 am depth and temperature range of 7-10 °C with highest abundance during summer. Size range was 3.6-17.8 shell width and 3.1-15.7 shell length. Sex ratio during summer was 1:1 but varied in other seasons. Sex distribution presented a different pattern. Ovigerous females were mainly collected in a 400-600 m depth range in different seasons, suggesting a protacted spawning period with a peak in spring. Smallest ovigerous female found was 8.5 mm SW. Fecundity varied between 21-4630 eggs. Fecundity showed a high variation with body weight, although a significant relationship was presented (P< 0.05). Fecundity and female condition factor showed a linear relationship with less data dispersion.


P.28   Ecology CARCINOFAUNA COMPOSITION FROM SOUTH PERNAMBUCO CONTINENTAL SHELF, SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC. LUCATELLI D.*, LABORATORY OF CARCINOLOGY (LABCARCINO); MUSEU DE OCEANOGRAFIA PROF. PETRÔNIO ALVES COELHO (MOUFPE); UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE PERNAMBUCO (UFPE); ARQUITETURA AVE., CAMPUS UFPE, RECIFE-PE, BRAZIL; CEP: 50740-550; SOUZA-FILHO J.F., LABORATORY OF CARCINOLOGY (LABCARCINO); MUSEU DE OCEANOGRAFIA PROF. PETRÔNIO ALVES COELHO (MOUFPE); UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE PERNAMBUCO (UFPE); ARQUITETURA AVE., CAMPUS UFPE, RECIFE-PE, BRAZIL; CEP: 50740-550; ANDRADE R.M., LABORATORY OF CARCINOLOGY (LABCARCINO); MUSEU DE OCEANOGRAFIA PROF. PETRÔNIO ALVES COELHO (MOUFPE); UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE PERNAMBUCO (UFPE); ARQUITETURA AVE., CAMPUS UFPE, RECIFE-PE, BRAZIL; CEP: 50740-550; GUEDES-SILVA E., LABORATORY OF CARCINOLOGY (LABCARCINO); MUSEU DE OCEANOGRAFIA PROF. PETRÔNIO ALVES COELHO (MOUFPE); UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE PERNAMBUCO (UFPE); ARQUITETURA AVE., CAMPUS UFPE, RECIFE-PE, BRAZIL; CEP: 50740-550

The aim of this work was to designate the composition and distribution of the carcinofauna along the Tamandare Bay (South Pernambuco), which comprise a Marine Protected Area (MPA) “Costa dos Corais”. The samples were collected by R/V Velella using dredge and Van-Veen grabs. The continental shelf was divided in three portions: Inner (0-20 m), Mid (20-40 m) and Outer (>40 m) shelf. The samples were transformed to log (x+1) and analyzed on redundancy analysis and CAP. A total of 3.516 specimens were collected. Seven groups of Crustacea were identified: Amphipoda, Cumacea, Decapoda, Leptostraca, Ostracoda, Stomatopoda e Tanaidacea. Among these, only Leptostraca showed a restricted bathymetric distribution, being collected around 40 m (mainly on Mid shelf). Tanaidacea (n= 1.228), Amphipoda (n= 1.179) and Isopoda (n= 522) were the most representative orders. The first one was the most abundant among all crustacean. Crustaceans showed a higher abundance on Mid shelf and lower on Inner shelf. Cumacea and Ostracoda were more representative on Inner and Outer shelf, respectively. Leptostraca had no representatives on Inner shelf. Regarding the type of substrate, the Inner shelf was composed by a variety of substrate (from mud to gravel). Mid and outer shelves was defined by coarse-sand and gravel. The CAP analysis presented tanaidaceans and amphipods preferring coarse substrate on Mid and Outer shelf. This work is the first to study the carcinofauna of Tamandare, contributing with the knowledge of this group for the MPA “Costa dos Corais”.


P.29   Ecology EFFECTS OF EXTENDED DAY LENGTH ON VITELLOGENESIS OF INTERTIDAL CRAB P. CINCTIPES. Neufeld Madelyn*, Department of Biology, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740; Gunderson A.R.; Stillman J.H.; Tsukimura Brian

Intertidal organisms, such as the porcelain crab, Petrolisthes cinctipes, live in a dynamic environment. They are exposed to varied tides, temperatures, and day lengths. These abiotic factors may act as stressors, having physiological effects on P. cinctipes. They may rely on temperature and/or day length cues to become reproductive. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that P. cinctipes are reproductive in the winter months during a new moon. Reproductive output can be measured through the yolk protein, vitellogenin (Vg). We can determine the Vg concentration in P. cinctipes hemolymph using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Delmanowski et al. 2017). To determine whether reproduction is dependent on day length, crabs were collected on both full and new moons. They were exposed to extended day lengths for seven days using overhead light sources. Pre- and post-treatment hemolymph samples were taken before and after treatment. Vg concentrations were measured using the ELISA. Extended day length increased the levels of Vg in crabs collected during full moons. Crabs in the control group showed decreased levels of Vg. This effect was most pronounced in gravid crabs. Vg levels did not change in crabs collected under new moons. The ELISA cannot discern between Vg and vitellin (Vn), which might be released by oocytes during degradation. The increased levels of Vg could be showing an increase in Vn, which means that oocytes have been resorbed in response to stress conditions. To determine whether the ELISA detected Vg, in-depth RNA analysis is required.


P.30   Ecology DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF NEPHROPIDAE AND POLYCHELIDAE OF THE SOUTHERN GULF OF MEXICO (TAMAULIPAS TO YUCATÁN). VÁZQUEZ-BADER A.R., Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, México City 04510 México; GRACIA A., Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, México City 04510 México; BRIONES-FOURZÁN P.D., Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, Puerto Morelos , Q. Roo México; LOZANO-ALVAREZ E., insituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, Puerto Morelos, Q. Roo, México

A systematic study along the Mexican continental slope (300-1200 m depth) of the Gulf of Mexico (Tamaulipas-Yucatán) was conducted on board the R/V JUSTO SIERRA of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, to study crustacean biodiversity and potential fishery resources. The benthic fauna was sampled day and night using a semi-commercial shrimp trawling net with a 18 m mouth and 4.5 cm mesh. We collected a total of 900 individuals belonging to Families Nephropidae (Acanthacaris caeca, Neprhropsis aculeta, N. rosaea, and Thaumastocheles zaleucus), and Polychelidae (Cardus crucifer, Polycheles perarmatus, Polycheles typhlops, and Stereomastis sculpta). We analyzed the bathymetrical and geographical distribution of the species in the southern part of Gulf of Mexico, also we made ANOVA analysis to compare the density by species, sex, depth, and Gulf of Mexico sector. For the entire southern area, N. aculeata, presented the great abundance, following by N. rosea, whereas C. crucifer and T. zaleucus were the less abundant. Highest abundance for all species was observed in a narrow bathymetrical range (500-599 m). N. aculeata size increases with depth, whereas N. rosea showed the opposite.


P.31   Ecology DISCOVERING THE TANAIDACEA OF CARIBBEAN MESOPHOTIC REEFS. Esquete P. *, Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 PORTUGAL; Schizas N., Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, PR 00681-9000 ; Chatterjee T., Department of Biology, Indian School of Learning, I.S.M. Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand, INDIA.

Mesophotic reefs are characterized by low light adapted reef communities occurring in tropical seas. Unlike their shallower counterparts, they are largely understudied and even baseline diversity studies are almost inexistent. This work deals with the Tanaidacean specimens collected in the framework of the 2016 Nekton/XL Catlin Deep Ocean Survey in Bermuda, Deep-CRES program of the University of Puerto Rico, and three mesophotic cruises (2010-2012) in US Caribbean. Samples consisted on corals, algae and rhodolits were taken by technical divers and Triton submersibles at depths ranging 45-330m. A total of 291 individuals belonging to 15 morphospecies of four families were found, all of them but two (Synapseudes erici and Hoplolemius propinquus) are new to science. Just like the typical situation for shallow water samplings, the number of species per sample was relatively low, ranging from 1 to 9. The most abundant and widespread species belonged to the genus Paraleptochelia, followed by one belonging to Sinelobus. This work will be the first study focusing on Tanaidacea of mesophotic reefs, and represent a contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of the Caribbean Sea.


P.32   Ecology IS THERE HOST-ASSOCIATED DIFFERENTIATION IN MARINE HERBIVORE AMPHIPODS? PERES P.A.*, Laboratory of Bioecology and Crustacean Systematics (LBSC), Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters at Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo (USP),Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; AZEVEDO-SILVA M., Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil; ANDRADE S.C.S., Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil; LEITE F.P.P., Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil

Plant-herbivore interactions may play an important role on the evolution of small terrestrial and marine herbivore. Some authors consider amphipods as insect equivalents in the marine realm because of their strict relation to the host macroalgae, which was already explored regarding macroalgae chemical defenses. Different host species provide distinct selective pressures for their associated animal populations, which may act as divergent selection pressure towards adaptive traits related to each host. This phenomenon has been called host-associated differentiation (HAD), and can lead to ecological specialization, or even ecological speciation. However, it is still unexplored if amphipods may be insect equivalents in terms of HAD. Here, the species Cymadusa filosa (Amphipoda, Ampithoidae) and its host macroalgae were used as models to test the hypothesis that amphipods present HAD, being genetically and morphologically structured because of differences in host traits. Furthermore, it was tested if there are differences among populations from distinct localities because of limited dispersion in amphipods. Microsatellites were used to access the genetic diversity, along with geometric morphometric analyses for morphology. Our results indicate that there was no HAD regarding genetic and morphological features. Individuals seem to be highly mobile in local scales or to have a juvenile based dispersal, and they seem capable to disperse among localities by rafting. Two distinct morphological groups were formed probably because of environmental conditions of localities. HAD in marine environments is probably context-dependent, and should be explored in different species and scales, so we can have a better appraisal of marine plant-herbivore interaction.


P.33   Ecology DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE ON PROCAMBARUS FALLAX FORMA VIRGINALIS. Rymut J.A*, Department of Natural Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA

Ethanol (EtOH) effects inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity by inhibiting the production of iNOS in cells. Acute doses increase the production of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). At higher dosages, ethanol impairs endothelial functions. NO has been found to suppress the feeding response in pond snails, Lymnaea stagnalis, induce synaptic depression in crayfish, and inhibit the swimming rhythm of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. This in vivo study will be performed in order to determine if synaptic depression is caused by free radical NO and determine if overall movements are decreased in Procambarus forma fallax virginalis (P.f.f virginalis) in the presence of NO. It was hypothesized that there will be a depression in synaptic activity and less movement in crayfish exposed to free radical NO. A probe will be inserted near the cerebral ganglion to assess depression in synaptic inputs. Movement will be tested by placing crayfish into a partitioned tank and counting each movement across a partition as one movement. Movement will be tested on both an individual and group level to determine if group activity will be a variable factor. NO will be introduced through the usage of ethanol, an L-arginine supplement, and chlorhexidine​ in an approximate range of five to ten​ parts per million (​5 ​mg/L​ and 10 mg/L​).


P.34   Ecology INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE SIZE ON SHRIMP NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PARTICLE MOVEMENT THROUGH THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Wade N.M.*, CSIRO Aquaculture, Queensland Biosciences Precinct, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia.; Bourne N.; Simon C.J.

A range of inert digestibility markers, such as yttrium (Y) and ytterbium (Yb) oxides, are used to indirectly calculate the digestibility of nutrients in aquafeeds. Gross over-estimations of nutrient digestibility can be encountered if several assumptions are not met, including that nutrients move through the digestive system at the same rate as the markers. The present study assessed the effect of particle size on apparent nutrient digestibility or relative particle absorption, and traced the movement of several inert metal markers (Y, Yb and gold) of various sizes (>3 µm, 400 nm, 100 nm, 50 nm and 5 nm) through the shrimp digestive tract (1, 2, 3, 5, 10 and 18 hours) after a set ration. This work showed that particle size significantly effected nutrient digestibility, and that 50 nm and 5 nm gold particles had relative particle absorption coefficients of 37.3 ± 2.7% and 48.9 ± 1.8%, respectively. Gold particles were detected in the hepatopancreas of animals fed 5 nm gold for more than 18 hours, despite that the shrimp evacuation rate was calculated at 22.1% h-1. Large Y and Yb particles (>3 µm) found within the animal 1-hour after feeding showed that true feed intake was lower than measured feed intake by 15-25%, and provided an estimate of manipulative losses. Overall, this study showed that the shrimp filter press was highly efficient at excluding small indigestible particles, to below 400 nm, and that extremely high rates of nutrient digestion were maintained despite rapid movement through the digestive system.


P.35   Ecology The Private Sex Life of Symbiotic Decapod Crustaceans: Model Systems in Behavioral Ecology. Baeza J.A.*, Department of Biology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634; Baeza J.

A symbiotic lifestyle is one of the most important environmental adaptations in decapod crustaceans. These symbiotic associations most often comprise small decapods and other much larger invertebrate partners that serve as hosts. Studies conducted during the last decades in symbiotic decapods have revealed most impressive morphologies, colorations, reproductive strategies, and social interactions. In this talk, I provide an overview of the mating system of selected representatives from major decapod crustacean clades that have adopted a symbiotic lifestyle. A literature review reveals five different mating system in decapod symbiotic decapod crustaceans: Social monogamy, Host-defense polygyny, Female-centered polygyny, Pure search polygynandry of mobile females, and Pure search polygynandry of sedentary females. I also compare the mating system of symbiotic species to that of their closest free-living relatives to reveal behavioral adaptations to the symbiotic mode of life. The comparative approach above suggests that the mating system of symbiotic crustaceans is mostly determined by a combination of host intrinsic characteristics, i.e., host relative size and abundance, and extrinsic environmental conditions, i.e., predation risk off hosts. Life history and experimental studies are needed to formally test the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic host characteristics in driving the mating system of symbiotic crustaceans.


P.36   Ecology EFFECTS OF HABITAT TYPE ON A MARINE MESOPREDATOR'S FORAGING EFFICIENCY . Kulp R.E.*, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Floros N., Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA; Peterson B.J., School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA

Benthic predators forage in multiple habitats, each of which can differ in its structure density. This variation could alter the predators’ foraging efficiency, thus altering their top-down control on the community. However, few studies have examined structure density effects in multiple habitat types. In a series of functional response mesocosm experiments, the foraging efficiency of the decapod mesopredator, Dyspanopeus sayi, was tested in a soft-bottom structured habitat, Zostera marina, and hard-bottom structured habitat, Crepidula fornicata shell hash. Increasing densities of the bivalve prey, Mytilus edulis, were placed in one of four mimicked structure habitat density mesocosm treatments (no structure, low [- 1SD of field mean], middle [field mean] and high [+ 1 SD of field mean]). Unlike typical submerged aquatic vegetative habitat density studies, Z. marina structure did not have a negative effect on D. sayi foraging efficiency regardless of shoot density. In contrast to their predation in the Z. marina habitat, D. sayi was less likely to consume M. edulis in C. fornicata habitat beyond the low habitat density. The differential foraging behavior in each habitat type was likely a result of differential prey accessibility in the habitat structure. In addition, the prey used, M. edulis, had limited mobility, which may have influenced the relationship between structure type and density and D. sayi’s ability to find prey. Our results indicate that habitat type and prey mobility need to be considered to understand how habitat complexity alters predator foraging efficiency.


P.37   Fisheries A REVIEW ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE STONE CRAB MENIPPE MERCENARIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT . Kroenke C*, Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634; Baeza JA, Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634

The stone crab Menippe mercenaria is heavily fished in the USA. This study reviews the life history of M. mercenaria to identify knowledge gaps relevant to the sustainable management of this fishery. Menippe mercenaria is abundant from Virginia to Texas. Adults are omnivorous but primarily feed on mollusks. Female spawning seasons vary by geographical location. In one reproductive season, females lay an average of six clutches, brooding approximately one million eggs. Larval release is correlated with circadian rhythms and tidal cycles. Temperature and salinity are key factors in the rate of larval development and mortality. Megalopae settle on a variety of substrates: mud, sand, rock, oysters, and seagrass beds. Chemical and physical cues play a role in inducing metamorphosis and megalopae ignore exudate cues from adults. Predation on M. mercenaria appears limited. Juveniles growth more quickly than adults, which molt once each year, with a final molting near age seven. M. Mercenaria show highly ritualized confrontational behaviors that are unique compared to other crustaceans. Males mate with recently molted 'soft' females, but may engage in pre-copulatory pairings before females have molted. Fishery regulations are inconsistent across the region, and likely outdated due to climate change. Claw-removal fisheries appear to cause moderate mortality and diminished reproductive performance. Our review suggests that additional studies on the population genetics, effect of claw removal, and reproductive performance of M. mercenaria are needed if this fishery is to be managed towards the goal of sustainability.


P.38   Fisheries EVALUATION OF MALES REPRODUCTIVE QUALITY OF THE WHITE SHRIMP LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN COMMERCIAL MATURATION SYSTEM. SILVA EMANUELL FELIPE*, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, Campus Cabedelo, Cabedelo, 58103-772 PB, Brazil; CASTELO-BRANCO THAÍS, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Laboratório de Andrologia (ANDROLAB), 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil; DA COSTA LETICIA SABINO FELIX , Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, Campus Cabedelo, Cabedelo, 58103-772 PB, Brazil; DA SILVA YOHANNA VITÓRIA FERNANDES, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, Campus Cabedelo, Cabedelo, 58103-772 PB, Brazil; NOLÉ LEANDRO, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, Campus Cabedelo, Cabedelo, 58103-772 PB, Brazil; LIRA ALEX SOUZA , Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, Campus Cabedelo, Cabedelo, 58103-772 PB, Brazil; BATISTA ANDRÉ MARIANO, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Laboratório de Andrologia (ANDROLAB), 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil; GUERRA MADALENA , Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Laboratório de Andrologia (ANDROLAB), 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil

The objective of the study was to evaluate the males reproductive quality of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in a commercial maturation system. The reproductive quality was determined by spermatophore weight, counting and sperm viability of seven animals with 0, 21, 44 and 84 days in the maturation system. Each male was weighed individually and one spermatophore was extruded manually and weighed. This spermatophore was homogenized in an eppendorf tube with 1 mL of calcium-free saline solution and quantified in a hemocytometer. The viability of sperm was assessed by staining with propidium iodide and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (PI-CFDA). For animals entering in the maturation system (day zero), a significant lower weight (35.62±2.59 g) was observed in relation to the animals with 21 (40.50±2.55 g), 44 (41.65±4.53 g) and 84 days in the system (44.72±1.89 g). However, the spermatophore weight (day 0: 0.12±0.006g; day 21: 0.11±0.40g; day 44: 0.16±0.01g; day 84: 0.12±0.008g) and number of sperm cells (104 cells/mL) (day 0: 698.0±192.01; day 21: 920.0±300.0; day 44: 1047.5±545.4; day 84: 594.0±336.2) did not differ among the four groups analyzed. For the sperm viability, the animals with 84 days of maturation showed a higher viability (91.40±5.17%) in relation to the animals entering in the maturation system (79.40±18.28%). Animals with 21 (86.80±6.53%) and 44 days (91.20±4.65%) did not present significant differences among the other. L. vannamei males with approximately three months kept in commercial maturation systems, present higher sperm viability in relation to those shrimp entering in the system.


P.39   Fisheries SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HERMIT CRABS ASSOCIATED WITH DEEP-WATER SHRIMP FISHING IN THE PACIFIC COAST OF COSTA RICA, CENTRAL AMERICA. Villalobos-Rojas F., Unidad de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad de Costa Rica; Wehrtmann I.S.*, Unidad de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad de Costa Rica; Azofeifa-Solano J.C., Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica; Romero-Chaves R., Unidad de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad de Costa Rica

One of the greatest threats for deep-water ecosystems are fisheries with non-selective fishing gear such as bottom trawling, which cause serious ecological impacts on the associated fauna. The number of studies on bycatch of deep-water fisheries has increased significantly in the last decades, indicating an increase in discard rates in recent years. In Costa Rica, deep-water fisheries (> 100 m) focused on Heterocarpus vicarius (“camello”; Pandalidae) and Solenocera agassizii (“fidel”; Solenoceridae), which present discard rates of up to 80%. Nineteen species of hermit crabs have been reported in waters deeper than 50 m, and in 2007 two species were reported from shrimp trawls carried out in the Costa Rican Pacific (Paguristes bakeri and Petrochirus californiensis). The taxonomy of this group is under constant review and a large number of new species have been described for the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The present work enlists the hermit crab species present in samples from a deep-water shrimp fishery monitoring program during the period 2010-2012, as well as the geographical and bathymetric distribution of these hermit crabs along the Costa Rican Pacific. The number of hermit crabs present in deep-water shrimp fisheries is extended to six species: Paguristes cf. holmesi, Areopaguristes praedator, Tomopagurus mericulatus, Dardanus stimpsoni, Dardanus nudus and Xylopagurus cancellarius. Paguristes cf. holmesi was the most abundant species (n = 65), while Dardanus stimpsoni (n = 10) is a new record for the collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Costa Rica.


P.40   Fisheries LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI DIGESTIVE METALLO PEPTIDASES COMPENSATE FOR ANTI-NUTRITIONAL SBTI IN FEED. García-Carreño F*, CIBNOR; Maytorena Verdugo C, CIBNOR; Córdova Murueta J, CIBNOR

The aim of this work was to study mechanisms of homeostasis of the digestive system of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei when fed anti-nutritional soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). In a previous work, we tested if the shrimp could respond against SBTI in feed with the increase in the digestive proteolytic activity. This time we tested the time of response against the inhibitor and also how the two major digestive trypsin phenotypes change the proteolytic activity. In groups fed SBTI, the total proteolytic activity, trypsin and chymotrypsin decreased during food transit time (2–4 h), but increased at 23 h postprandial. Three metallo peptidases absent in the control group were identified in groups fed SBTI; individuals with trypsin phenotype CBA increased the activity of two metallo peptidases at 4 h of SBTI ingestion, while, individuals with trypsin phenotype CB increased the activity of three metallo peptidases at 23 h postprandial. The first evidence of feedback by the digestive system in the whiteleg shrimp fed SBTI was 1 h postprandial, with a concomitant increased in metallo peptidases activity at 4 h or 23 h depending on the trypsin phenotype in each specimen


P.41   Functional Morphology RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE COMPOSITION OF CLAM SHRIMP (LAEVICAUDATA, SPINICAUDATA, CYCLESTHERIDA) CARAPACES: A NOVEL DUAL MINERALIZATION SYSTEM. Hegna T.A.*, Department of Geology, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 USA; Czaja A.D., University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, 500 Geology-Physics Building, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0013; Rogers D.C., Kansas Biological Survey, Kansas University, Higuchi Hall, 2101 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047-3759 USA

Clam shrimp are a paraphyletic group of bivalved branchiopod crustaceans including the Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, and the Cyclestherida. In the published literature, the mineral content of the unique carapace (formed by molt retention in Spinicaudata and Cyclestherida) is variously ascribed to calcite or calcium phosphate. To better understand the mineral composition of clam shrimp carapaces, we analyzed the composition of the modern carpaces of one species of laevicaudatan, thirteen species of spinicaudatan (including both cyzicids, leptestheriids, and limnadiids), one species of cyclestherid, and two species of the notostracan Triops (as an outgroup comparison within Branchiopoda) via Raman spectroscopy. The results were surprisingly variable. The outgroups species of Triops varied in either having no mineral content to having a slight amount of calcium phosphate in their carpaces. The laevicaudatan, Lynceus planifascia, likewise had a minor calcium phosphate peak. The leptestheriid, Leptestheria compleximanus, had a strong calcium phosphate peak and a strong calcium carbonate peak. The seven limnadiids were variable; varying from no mineral content to strong dual calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate peaks. The five cyzicids tended to have strong calcium phosphate peaks and some amount of calcium carbonate as well. The cyclestherid, Cylcestheria sp., had no mineral content. The results support the conclusion that spinicaudatans primitively have a unique dual mineralization system in their carapace that utilizes both calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate, with the calcium phosphate ability being primitive. This dual mineralization system is novel in branchiopods and warrants study from material scientists.


P.42   Functional Morphology SEEING THINGS FROM A DIFFERENT ANGLE - THE REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY OF XANTHO PORESSA. KABUS J.*, Zoological Museum Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Hegewischstraße 3, 24105 Kiel, Germany ; HAYER S., Zoological Museum Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Hegewischstraße 3, 24105 Kiel, Germany ; BORETIUS S., Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; BRANDIS D., Zoological Museum Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Hegewischstraße 3, 24105 Kiel, Germany

The genus Xantho Leach, 1814 has an exclusive Mediterranean–Atlantic distribution and shows a great interspecific as well as intraspecific morphological variability (d‘Udekem d’Acoz, 1999). All four species of the genus as currently defined are restricted to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Xantho poressa Olivi, 1792 is a widely distributed species of crab from the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and parts of the eastern Atlantic Ocean which normally lives in the shallow subtidal zone (0–2 m) in a wide range of habitats. To gain a new tool in studying intra- and interspecific variation of the genus Xantho on a morphological level, we developed a reference model of the copulatory system of Xantho poressa. Since the reproductive system of this species is entirely unknown, we used histological methods, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and micro computed tomography (µCT) to analyze the female reproductive organs. The results show a vagina and seminal receptacle which leans highly to the lateral side. In this case a rarely described epithelium around the seminal receptacle seems to play an important role in the fertilization process. Photographs of the male gonopods were used to understand the copulatory process. In summary the reproductive system of Xantho poressa can give some insight in the otherwise well-known genus Xantho.


P.43   Functional Morphology ARE SOME CUTICULAR PARTS CONSERVED FOR STUDYING THE LIFE HISTORY OF AMPHIDROMOUS CARIDINA SHRIMPS (DECAPODA: CARIDEA: ATYIDAE)? de Mazancourt V.*, Département Adaptations du Vivant, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, UMR 7208 BOREA, Paris, France; Djediat C., Département Adaptations du Vivant, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, UMR 7245 MCAM, Paris, France; Keith P., Département Adaptations du Vivant, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, UMR 7208 BOREA, Paris, France; Luquet G., Département Adaptations du Vivant, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, UMR 7208 BOREA, Paris, France

Amphidromous lifestyle, allowing some species of fish, gastropods and decapods to colonize freshwaters ecosystems from the sea still keeps some secrets. To study this lifestyle, sclerochronology has been used in the two former groups, focusing respectively on the otoliths and the operculum, both calcified parts preserved throughout the life of the animal and recording all the physico-chemical changes of their environment. However, such a feature was supposed to be lacking in crustaceans due to the molting process they undergo all during their life. In 2012, Kilada et al. proposed a novel technique to determine the age of some decapods using growth bands in the endocuticle of the eyestalk and gastric ossicles, suggesting that some parts of the cuticle were preserved through the molts. We tested the feasibility of using these anatomical parts to study the life traits of an amphidromous shrimp, Caridina multidentata. The small size of the specimens (>5 cm) and the difficulties to obtain the gastric ossicles led us to focus on the cuticle of the eyestalk. Vital markings were performed on specimens during one or several molt cycles and we could not reproduce the results obtained by Kilada et al. on other species since coloration did not seem to be retained in a specific area of the cuticle of C. multidentata. Finally, we studied the ultrastructure of the cuticle at different stages of the molt cycle and the exuvia with TEM microscopy to investigate the conservation of a part of it throughout the cycle.


P.44   Functional Morphology A NEW AND MYSTERIOUS INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF NAUPLIUS LARVAE: A “GHOSTLY” SUPPORT SLING FOR THE Y-CYPRIS PRESENT WITHIN LAST-INSTAR EXUVIAE OF NAUPLIUS Y (CRUSTACEA: THECOSTRACA: FACETOTECTA). GRYGIER M.J.*, Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224 TAIWAN (ROC); OLESEN J., Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, DENMARK; DREYER N., Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, DENMARK; HØEG J.T., Marine Biology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, DENMARK

The Facetotecta, or “y-larvae”, undergo a metamorphic molt from the last nauplius to the cypris in which a free carapace, six pairs of natatory thoracopods, and a segmented thorax and abdomen develop. Unlike in earlier naupliar molts, the cephalic shield and the so-called “facio-trunk” usually remain together at the last molt, and the posterior “trunk” portion, while hollow, is not empty. In mounted preparations examined by phase or differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, a ghost-like image of part of the cypris thorax, particularly the thoracopods and even their setae, is commonly visible inside the naupliar exuviae, and may be universally present. To investigate this “ghost”, we used DIC and digital photographic stacking, plus SEM, on slide- or stub-mounted last naupliar molts of an assortment of undescribed species of Facetotecta that had been reared from planktonic lecithotropic nauplii to the cypris stage at Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan, and Keelung, Taiwan. These techniques showed that the “ghost” is a delicate, three-dimensional, fibrous structure, essentially a sling-like mold or matrix with struts attached to the outer cuticle and pairs of deep pockets that previously held the thoracopods of the developing cypris y. Whether it is endoskeletal in nature, the (partial) exuviae of an additional instar, or something else is currently unknown. Nothing similar has been reported in other thecostracans, or in other crustaceans that undergo a similarly abrupt metamorphosis at the last naupliar molt, but we expect that some of their exuviae will also prove to hold “ghosts”.


P.45   Functional Morphology NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PROBOSCIS OF PANTOPODA: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH BASED ON MORPHOLOGY. Wagner P.*, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Biocenter, Department of Biology II, Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried; Germany; Doemel J., University Duisburg-Essen, Fakulty of Biology, Universitätsstrasse 5, 45151 Essen, Germany; Hofmann M., Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 München; Huebner J., Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 München; Leese F., University Duisburg-Essen, Fakulty of Biology, Universitätsstrasse 5, 45151 Essen, Germany; Melzer R.R., Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 München

The primary organ for food uptake in pantopods is their prominent proboscis. The shape of the proboscis is very variable: thin and elongated forms (e.g., in Austrodecus glaciale) occur as well as short and stout forms (e.g., in Pigrogromitus timsanus). The highly differentiated inner structures comprise a filter apparatus and an armature made of denticles. We used a comparative approach, including representatives of all major pantopod lineages, to analyse the inner surface of the proboscis with its different structures. In this study we bisected the proboscides of Achelia langi (Ammotheidae), Anopodactylus californicus (Phoxichilidiidae), Ascorhynchus castellioides (Ascorhynchidae), Austrodecus glaciale (Austrodecidae), Callipallene margarita (Callipallenidae), Colossendeis macerrima (Colossendeidae), Endeis spinosa (Endeidae), Nymphon macronyx (Nymphonidae), Pallenopsis patagonica (Pallenopsidae), Pantopipetta sp. (Austrodecidae), Pigrogromitus timsanus (Ascorhynchoidea incertae sedis) and Pycnogonum litorale (Pycnogonidae). These were subsequently analysed with Scanning EM, µCT and fluorescence microscopy. Results were used to establish sets of “inner trunk” characters that vary between species. These traits included length and width of proboscis, shape of the mouth opening, borders and armature of the three antimeres forming the proboscis, shape and position of denticles arrays, length of filter apparatus, and structure of the filter bristles. Analyses of these characters indicate a high variability of structures on the inner surface of the pycnogonid proboscis, probably related to different modes of food uptake.


P.46   Functional Morphology DESCRIPTION OF THE SETAE ON THE PEREIOPODS OF SCYLLARID LOBSTERS, SCYLLARIDES AEQUINOCTIALIS, S. LATUS, AND S. NODIFER, WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE FEEDING SEQUENCE DURING CONSUMPTION OF BIVALVES AND GASTROPODS. LAVALLI K.L.*, College of General Studies, Division of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 USA; MALCOM C.N., Educational Testing Service, Sacramento, CA 95814 USA; GOLDSTEIN J.S., Maine Coastal Ecology Center, Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, ME 04090 USA

This paper examined the morphological and behavioral aspects of slipper lobster feeding. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the gross morphological structure of all pereiopods were described for three species of scyllarid lobsters: Scyllarides aequinoctialis, S. latus, and S. nodifer. Five types of setae within three broad categories were found: simple (long and miniature), cuspidate (robust and conate), and teasel (a type of serrulate setae). Setae were arranged in a highly organized, row-like pattern on the ventral and dorsal surfaces. Comparisons among species demonstrate that S. nodifer bears the same setae and setal pattern as S. latus, but S. aequinoctialis differs. The setal patterns of slipper lobsters contrast with those of nephropid and palinurid lobsters, likely due to the more rigorous use of the pereiopods in accessing their food. Feeding sequences of S. aequinoctialis on bivalves were videotaped, analyzed as Markovian chains, and showed a complex suite of behaviors involving contact chemoreception by the antennules as part of an initial assessment of food items, followed by mouthpart and leg probing, and eventual wedging behavior as previously described. Feeding sequences of S. latus on gastropods and bivalves also demonstrate extensive use of the pereiopods (instead of the mouthparts) to pry these prey items from the substrate and then to remove the foot. Use of antennules for food assessment and recruitment of many of the perieopods for food handling with minimal use of mouthparts also contrasts with the feeding sequences typical of nephropid and palinurid lobsters and may be an important adaptation.


P.47   Genomics HISTORICAL DEMOGRAPHY IN THE REEF-DWELLING CARIBBEAN SPINY LOBSTER PANULIRUS ARGUS REVEALED USING NGS. Baeza J.A.*, Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus is a keystone species in shallow water coral reefs and target of the most lucrative fishery in the Caribbean sea. We explored historical demography in P. argus using genotype-by-sequencing derived SNPs. We expected an increase in population size of P. argus from Florida, USA starting about 21,000 years ago, after the Last Glacial Maximum, when ice sheets started to retreat and subtropical shallow coastal waters warmed up. A total of 10 lobsters were collected from Alligator Reef, Florida Keys, Florida, USA. One microgram of gDNA extracted from each specimen was used for RAD library construction using established protocols. A panel of 1542 SNPs was obtained after interrogation of RAD-tags. This panel was then used to calculate a site frequency spectrum (SFS). The observed SFS for the Florida population of P. argus exhibited a non-normal distribution peaking at singleton SNPs. Three different demographic models (constant, exponential growth, and exponential growth after bottleneck ) were tested within a model selection approach in the software dadi. Results indicated that lobsters most likely suffered a population bottleneck in the distant pass before experienced population expansion. In disagreement with expectations, population expansion started much later than 21,000 years ago. Studies exploring population connectivity and population-specific demographic history of the Caribbean spiny lobster P. argus are underway. Fisheries and conservation studies are expected to profit from the evaluation of genomic and population variability in this species using demographic models, as shown here.


P.48   Genomics CROSSING EXPERIMENT AND GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF GENUS NEOCARIDINA IN JAPAN. NIWA N*, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University Kyoto, 606-8502 JAPAN; SHIGETO K, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804,JAPAN; HASHIMOTO K, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804,JAPAN; SAKAGUCHI T, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804,JAPAN; HOSHINO E, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804,JAPAN; MIHARA M, Kobe senior high school, Kobe, 657-0804,JAPAN




P.49   Genomics THE GENOME SURVEY OF CHTHAMALUS CHALLENGER (CIRRIPEDIA:CHTHAMALIDAE). Hee-Soo Kim, School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea ; Hyunkyong Kim; Won Kim*

Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, is a predominant species in the rocky intertidal zone of tropical and sub-tropical shores. It prefers the upper part of exposed rocky shores and endures strong surf and strong sunlight. We conducted genome survey of Chthamalus challengeri as a preceding step to obtain genetic information through whole genome sequencing. The genomic DNA for sequencing was extracted from adult specimen. A total of 135.4 GB of raw data were generated using the Illumina Hiseq X platform. We confirmed the quality of raw data using FastQC program. The total 110.8Gb of filtered data were used for K-mer analysis to estimate genome size of Chthamalus challengeri using JELLYFISH. The total sum of each K-mer individual for K-mer size of 17, 21, 25 bases pairs was 99.1 Gbp, 96.1 Gbp and 93.2 Gbp, respectively. The genome size of Chthamalus challenger was estimated to be approximately 0.91Gb based on K-mer measurement. In addition, we expect that Chthamalus challenger has high heterozygosity genome through clear two picks shown in K-mer analysis graph.


P.50   Genomics COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF TWO TETRACLITELLA SPECIES, T.CHINENSIS AND T.MULTICOSTATA. Kim H.K., School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea ; Kim H.S.; Kim W.*

The morphology of shell and number of plates are taxonomic characters in Barnacle. Within Tetraclitella Hiro, 1939, T. chinensis and T. multicostata are easily distinguished by the growth forms and number of holes in the shells. However, there are little significant genetic divergence between two species in two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and no distinct differences were observed in cirri, mouth parts and their setation. In this study, we conducted the first comparative analysis of de novo trascriptome assembly of RNA sequencing for two species, T. chinensis and T. multicostata. Using the Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 32,926,730 trimmed data of T. chinensis and 33,944,188 of T. multicostata. Comparison of two species transcripts against the Uniprot database produced 22,475 and 21,421 positive matches for T. chinensis and T. multicostata transcriptomes, respectively. Based on the DAVID gene functional annotation system, we analyzed gene ontology enrichment of two species to classify the functions of unigenes. Genes concerning binding for T. chinensis and cellular process for T. multicostata were most abundant genes in the biological process. The results suggested that transcriptome profiling is useful tool to understand evolutionary changes according to ecological adaptation of T. chinensis and T. multicostata.


P.51   Genomics THE GENOME SURVEY OF CHTHAMALUS CHALLENGERI (CIRRIPEDIA:CHTHAMALIDAE). Kim H.S., School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea ; Kim H.K.; Kim W.*

Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, is a predominant species in the rocky intertidal zone of tropical and sub-tropical shores. It prefers the upper part of exposed rocky shores and endures strong surf and strong sunlight. We conducted genome survey of Chthamalus challengeri as a preceding step to obtain genetic information through whole genome sequencing. The genomic DNA for sequencing was extracted from adult specimen. A total of 135.4 GB of raw data were generated using the Illumina Hiseq X platform. We confirmed the quality of raw data using FastQC program. The total 110.8Gb of filtered data were used for K-mer analysis to estimate genome size of Chthamalus challengeri using JELLYFISH. The total sum of each K-mer individual for K-mer size of 17, 21, 25 bases pairs was 99.1 Gbp, 96.1 Gbp and 93.2 Gbp, respectively. The genome size of Chthamalus challenger was estimated to be approximately 0.91Gb based on K-mer measurement. In addition, we expect that Chthamalus challenger has high heterozygosity genome through clear two picks shown in K-mer analysis graph.


P.52   Genomics GENETIC STRUCTURE OF CALANUS HELGOLANDICUS (CALANOIDA:COPEPODA) FROM THE DEEP BALEARIC SEA. Figueroa N.J.*, School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78575 USA; Cartes J.E., Recursos Marins Renovables, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; Figueroa D.F., School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78575 USA

Calanus helgolandicus (Copepoda: Calanoida) is widely distributed in epipelagic waters of the Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The species is also very abundant at bathypelagic/abyssopelagic depths. In the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), C. helgolandicus was the dominant zooplantkon (> 95% of specimens collected) near the bottom at 2170 m depth. The objective of our project was to compare the genetic structure of C. heloglandicus from the deep Balearic Sea to that of previous studies that defined, unique and distinct populations in the English Channel-North Sea, the Adriatic Sea, and the Black Sea (this population is deemed C. euxinus). We targeted two mitochondrial regions, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the small ribosomal unit (16s). Haplotype network analyses show that the Balearic Sea had a high proportion of individuals with the same, dominant haplotype found in the UK-North Sea population. This is consistent with the Atlantic origin of Mediterranean fauna. Our gene flow and AMOVA analyses show that all populations are significantly different from each other, except for the near-bottom deep population in the Balearic Sea and the neritic population from the Black Sea. This surprising connection could be explained by the hydrography of the region. The Black Sea receives an inner flux of saltier water from the Mediterranean, while the outer flux from the Black Sea occurs at surface. Past colonization of the Black Sea by deep (not by surface) populations could explain the high affinity between C. helgolandicus from the deep Balearic Sea and those from the Black Sea.


P.54   Genomics HOW THE GENETIC DIVERSITY IS ORGANIZED ALONG THE DISTRIBUTION OF NEOTROPICAL MANGROVE CRABS? PERES P.A.*, Laboratory of Bioecology and Crustacean Systematics (LBSC), Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters at Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo (USP),Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; MANTELATTO F.L., Laboratory of Bioecology and Crustacean Systematics (LBSC), Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters at Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo (USP),Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Patterns and processes that explain the genetic diversity of species are current evolutionary biology topics. Assessing genetic variation across species ranges can elucidate trends in how genetic diversity is spatially organized. There are four hypotheses regarding the spatial distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity: 1) latitudinal trends; 2) core-marginal trends; 3) latitudinal-core-marginal trends; 4) highly-dispersal species trend. The most explanatory hypothesis depends on the taxon, but there are cases in which general patterns emerge when comparing a great number of species. As far as we know, there are no records of studies using Brachyura to test for general patterns regarding spatial organization of genetic diversity along western Atlantic distribution. Crabs are a potential group to test such hypotheses because of their diverse biological features, many species’ range encompasses great geographical areas, and this is a well-succeeded group in terms of adaptive evolution. Here, we explore which of the hypotheses best explain the distribution of genetic variation in seven mangrove crabs from the Neotropical Atlantic. Citochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences were generated for Aratus pisonii, Sesarma rectum, Armases angustipes, Leptuca thayeri, Ucides cordatus, Goniopsis cruentata using populations from Santa Catarina – Brazil, to Florida – USA. Nucleotide diversity and haplotypic were used as estimators of genetic diversity. We found that Aratus pisonii best explanator was the latitudinal trend model, while for all other species the highly-dispersal species model was the most fitted. Our dataset indicates that species-specific mechanisms may be acting on genetic diversity distribution, and, for now, general patterns were not found.


P.57   Paleobiology ALMATIUM SP. FROM THE MIDDLE TO LATE TRIASSIC MADYGEN FORMATION, SW KYRGYZSTAN AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE CALMANOSTRACA. Elsea P.K., Department of Geology, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 USA; Hegna T.A.*, Department of Geology, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 USA

The Madygen Formation is a noted terrestrial and aquatic lagerstätten found in SW Kyrgyzstan. Among the notable animals that it contains is a provisional new species of branchiopod crustacean belonging to the genus Almatium. The main differences between the Madygen Almatium specimens and specimens of Almatium from elsewhere lie in discontinuous proportional differences in the shape of the carapace. Larger samples may eventually demonstrate that these proportional differences are allometric and that the Madygen Almatium specimens are part of a single, highly variable species of Almatium across the Triassic of Asia. Traditionally, Almatium has been placed in the Kazacharthra—a clade of unique notostracan-like branchiopod crustaceans. Together with the notostracans, they form the clade called the Calmanostraca. However, owing to the morphological heterogeneity of the purported kazacharthrans, there is very little morphological support for the monophyly of Kazacharthra. A phylogenetic analysis (parsimony and Bayesian) of the Calmanostracans demonstrates this by finding essentially no structure to the kazacharthrans, and failing to recover their monophyly in the Bayesian analysis. Even so, many kazacharthrans remain very poorly known—it is possible that as they become better known, their phylogenetic resolution will increase.


P.58   Paleobiology MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE PENNSYLVANIAN HORSESHOE CRAB EUPROOPS DANAE (MEEK AND WORTHEN, 1865) FROM THE LOWER MERCER SHALE OF WINDBER, PENNSYLVANIA, USA. TASHMAN J.N.*, Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 USA; FELDMANN R.M., Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 USA; WELLS N.A., Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 USA; SCHWEITZER C.E., Department of Geology, Kent State University at Stark, North Canton, OH 44720 USA

In the 1960s, Richard Raymond acquired 36 specimens of the Pennsylvanian horseshoe crab Euproops danae (Meek and Worthen, 1865) originally collected from an abandoned strip mine south of Windber, Pennsylvania, USA. Morphological features common in E. danae, including a transverse bar across the intercardiophthalmic area, were missing from many well-preserved specimens. Raymond suggested this was a sexually dimorphic character based on statistical analyses, and that individuals with a transverse bar were male due to their location corresponding to male grasping appendages in modern species. However, transverse bars are more apparent among small specimens than those that are larger. Ophthalmic spines were also present in larger specimens but naturally truncated in those that were small. Raymond began a manuscript describing E. danae from this locality, which would have been the first documented occurrence of the species from the Mercer Shale; however, the manuscript never made it to print. His unpublished interpretations were analyzed herein, and new interpretations have been made. Using discriminant function analysis and other statistical approaches, it was determined that this small population is comprised of juveniles or sub-adults across five instar stages. It is proposed that the absence of ophthalmic spines and presence of transverse bars is associated with small prosomal size and therefore, early ontogenetic stages, while transverse bars become less pronounced as ophthalmic spines become longer in larger, older specimens.


P.59   Paleobiology PRESERVATION OF CUTICLE OF PROTAXIUS ISOCHELA WOODWARD (AXIIDEA, AXIIDAE) FROM THE AGRIO FORMATION (LOWER CRETACEOUS), NEUQUÉN BASIN, WEST-CENTRAL ARGENTINA. ANDRADA A.M.*, Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina; LAZO D.G., Instituto de Estudios Andinos “Don Pablo Groeber” (IDEAN, UBA-CONICET), Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428, Buenos Aires; BRESSAN G.S., Instituto de Estudios Andinos “Don Pablo Groeber” (IDEAN, UBA-CONICET), Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428, Buenos Aires

The cuticle of four specimens of Protaxius isochela Woodward (Axiidea, Axiidae) contained in ellipsoidal carbonate concretions was studied with the objective of knowing its composition and ultrastructure. They come from a thin interval of fine sandstones of the marine mixed platform of the Agrio Formation (early Hauterivian). SEM and EDS analysis were performed on two of the specimens, showing an outer smooth surface and revealing presence of massive calcium phosphate, while the composition of the inner part of the propodus was calcium carbonate and isolated small pyrite crystals were observed. Thin sections of the two other concretions exposed different parts of two specimens in cross section. Lamination of the epicuticle and exocuticle could not be identified, while lamination of the endocuticle was clearly observed. Phosphate and calcium carbonate are established in irregular layers without a defined pattern. Phosphate layers can disappear laterally being replaced by calcium carbonate layers. Cuticle preservation probably included immediate post-mortem phosphatization of the cuticle, then shallow entombment of the specimens closing the phosphatization window, anaerobic decay and pyrite precipitation, and finally precipitation of abundant carbonate cement around the specimens. These processes occurred in the early diagenesis, in different microenvironments generated inside the specimens during decay and early burial. The lamination preserved in the endocuticle and the presence of pyrite crystals indicate that the studied specimens were probably carcasses remains and not moults, whose preservation were enhaced by early diagenetic processes and early burial. This is contribution R-249 of IDEAN.


P.60   Paleobiology TRACKING HUMAN IMPACT AND REMEDIATION OF TEMPERATE LAKES THAT HAVE EXPERIENCED EUTROPHICATION USING LIVING AND SUBFOSSIL RECORDS. Diana O.N.*, Department of Biology, Virginia Wesleyan University, 5817 Wesleyan Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23455; Garelick S., Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Box 1951, Providence, RI 02912; Leonard-Pingel J, School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University at Newark, 1179 University Dr., Newark, OH 43055; Michelson A.V., Department of Biology, Virginia Wesleyan University, 5817 Wesleyan Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23455

Few studies describe the long terms effects of remediation to combat the effects of eutrophication in lakes. Here, we employ preserved lacustrine archives to both quantify human effects and track the progress of eutrophication and subsequent remediation. We sampled three currently-impacted lakes and three previously-impacted, but remediated lakes for living communities and time-averaged death assemblages of ostracodes in Wisconsin. Low live/dead agreement in impacted lakes results from a mismatch between the living community altered by human impact and the time-averaged death assemblage, reflecting pre-impact conditions, but live/dead agreement in remediated lakes is unknown. Furthermore, if low live/dead agreement is truly caused by human activity and remediation is recorded by preserved ostracode assemblages, then both human impact and remediation should be reflected in sedimentary archives. To test this, we extracted sediment cores from one currently-impacted and one remediated lake in Wisconsin. We find that live/dead agreement in remediated lakes is high, like unimpacted lakes. Sedimentary archives reveal high concentrations of preserved ostracod valves corresponding coincident with European settlement and eutrophication. This continues to the present the still-impacted lake, but lessens at the time of remediation in the remediated lake. Our remediated lake core also shows a decrease in the percent abundance of the low-oxygen tolerant species Candona eliptica at the time of remediation. Our results thus demonstrate that preserved ostracode assemblages can record human impact and remediation and that successful remediation can be tracked by the return of high live/dead agreement.


P.61   Paleobiology THE SEA SPIDERS (ARTHROPODA: PYCNOGONIDA) FROM THE LATE JURASSIC OF SOLNHOFEN. SABROUX R.*, Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 75005 Paris, FRANCE; AUDO D., Yunnan Key Laboratory for Palaeobiology, Yunnan University, CHINA; CHARBONNIER S., Centre de Recherche sur la Paléobiodiversité et les Paléoenvironnements, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 75005 Paris, FRANCE; CORBARI L., Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 75005 Paris, FRANCE; HASSANIN A., Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 75005 Paris, FRANCE

Sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) form a unique group of arthropods of which the oldest unambiguous fossil dates back to the Silurian (ca 425 million years). All extant species belong to the order Pantopoda characterized by cylindrical legs and an unsegmented, reduced abdomen, whereas the eight Paleozoic species exhibit a large panel of morphologies, including legs specialized for either paddling or walking, and various number of abdomen segments. Instead, the three Mesozoic fossils are assigned to Pantopoda. They all originate from the unique site of La Voulte-sur-Rhône, France (Callovian, ca 165 million years), remnant of a Middle Jurassic deep water environment. In the present study, we examined the morphology of nine undescribed fossil sea spiders from the Solnhofen-type outcrops of Germany, a remnant of the shallow lagoons of the European tropical archipelago of the Late Jurassic (ca 150 million years). We performed various macrophotographic techniques with image stacking, in order to reveal inconspicuous structures. All the fossils are pantopods, and two are even assigned to already described genera: the Middle Jurassic Colossopantopodus, and the extant Eurycyde. Other fossils are poorly preserved, however peculiar features indicate in some cases possible affinities to other extant genera. The existence of four extant families in Jurassic (Ammotheidae, Ascorhynchidae, Colossendeidae, Endeidae) suggests that the diversification of Pantopoda occurred prior to Middle Jurassic.


P.62   Paleobiology TAKING A DEEPER LOOK – A FOSSIL ISOPOD REVISITED BY 'VIRTUAL PALEONTOLOGY'. Schädel M.*, Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany; Nagler C., Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway ; Haug J.T., Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany

Fossils often lack supposedly crucial characters. It is ironic that this is especially often the case for fossils from so called Konservat-Lagerstätten – fossil sites that are known for exceptional preservation. For example: with few exceptions, such as chert and amber, exceptionally preserved fossils are in most cases distinctly compressed. In addition to this common loss of the third dimension the crucial characters are often on the “wrong side”. Here, we present a fossil from a type of deposit that is not likely to bear exceptionally preserved fossils (high energy environment). Yet, the surrounding rock consists of small spheres of lime (oolite) which prohibited compression. The fossil is a three dimensionally preserved isopod crustacean. The dorsal morphology of the new specimen indicates that it is a representative of Eonatolana geisingensis, already known from this locality. By scanning the fossil in a micro-CT we gained insight into the so far poorly known appendage morphology of this species and reconstructed the morphology with the aid of labeling contrasted structures, rendering these as surface models. This virtual paleontology method not only revealed the structure of the locomotory appendages, but also allowed the interpretation of the mouthparts. The newly observed details support the systematic interpretation of E. geisingensis as an non-parasitic representative of Cymothoida. Often, the non-parasitic forms within Cymothoida have been united in the supposedly monophyletic group Cirolanidae. Due to lack of well formulated apomorphies the monophyly of this group is however doubtful. Thus, we consider Eonatatolana geisingensis as Cymothoida incertae sedis.


P.63   Paleobiology SYSTEMATIC REASSESSMENT OF A CARIDEAN SHRIMP FROM THE APTIAN CRATO FORMATION, ARARIPE BASIN, NE BRAZIL. BONDIOLI J.G., Instituto de Geociências, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, 05508-080, Brasil.; MATOS S.A., Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, 18.618-970, Postal Code 510, Brasil.; CASTILHO A.L.*, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, 18.618-970, Postal Code 510, Brasil.; VAREJÃO F.G., Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Departamento de Geologia Aplicada, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Rio Claro, Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900 Postal Code 178, Brasil.; FÜRSICH F.T., FG Paläoumwelt, GeoZentrum Nordbayern der Friedrich-August-Universität Erlangen- Nürnberg, Loewenichstrasse, D-91054, Erlangen, Germany; ASSINE M.L., Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Departamento de Geologia Aplicada, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Rio Claro, Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900 Postal Code 178, Brasil.; SIMÕES M.G., Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, 18.618-970, Postal Code 510, Brasil.

The fossil record of palaemonid shrimps comprises 21 species embraced within nine genera, ranging from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) to the Oligocene. Beurlenia araripensis has been recognized as the only known South American, Cretaceous palaemonid. This is a key genus within caridean shrimps, since it represents the second oldest known Mesozoic freshwater palaemonid. However, some authors have noticed uncertainty on the palaemonid affinity of Beurlenia, based upon some morphological characters (e.g., presence of triflagellate antennules, two or more pairs of spines at distal extremity of telson) shared by extant palaemonid. New exceptionally well-preserved specimens of Beurlenia (coded as, GP/1E: 9490, 9863, 9864, 10630, 10631, 10862, 10863) from the basal laminated carbonate interval of the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, shed new lights on the morphology and affinities of this genus. The preservation of fragile morphological structures (e.g., antennules) and soft tissues (e.g., eyes and gills) indicates that all studied specimens are corpses, ranging from 41-49 mm in length. Despite the morphological variations in fossil palaemonids (e.g., presence of triflagellate or biflagellate antennules; serrate or smooth rostrum; spineless or spiny telson), the studied specimens show that Beurlenia is characterized by biflagellate antennules, a dorsally serrate rostrum, and telson with two apical spines. Finally, when preserved in the studied specimens the chelae of the second pereiopods are larger than those of the first, and the exopods are absent in all pereiopods. These characters allow B. araripensis to be referred to Palaemonidae.


P.64   Paleobiology NEW APTIAN NECROCARCINOIDEA FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS ROMUALDO FORMATION, ARARIPE BASIN, BRAZIL. MATOS S.A. , Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, 18.618-970, Postal Code 510, Brasil.; CASTILHO A.L.*, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, 18.618-970, Postal Code 510, Brasil.; BONDIOLI J.G. , Instituto de Geociências, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, 05508-080, Brasil.; CUSTÓDIO M.A., Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, 69077000, Brasil ; FÜRSICH F.T. , FG Paläoumwelt, GeoZentrum Nordbayern der Friedrich-August-Universität Erlangen- Nürnberg, Loewenichstrasse, D-91054, Erlangen, Germany; ASSINE M.L. , Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Departamento de Geologia Aplicada, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Rio Claro, Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900 Postal Code 178, Brasil.; SIMÕES M.G., Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, 18.618-970, Postal Code 510, Brasil.

Necrocarcinoidea is an Early Cretaceous to Oligocene group of marine, basal raninoids (frog crabs), represented by Araripecarcinus ferreirai in the Brazilian Cretaceous. Initially, this was interpreted as a freshwater portunoid crab, but subsequent studies demonstrated that they belong to Necrocarcinidae. Here, we record two new fossil specimens of necrocarcinoid crabs from the Romualdo Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, which were found in the Sobradinho section, Jardim County, Ceará State. At the study area, this formation is a ~98 m-thick siliciclastic-dominated sedimentary succession, mainly composed by concretion-bearing black shales and fossil-rich siltstones, also recording a metric-thick carbonate interval about halfway-up. The unit records the main marine transgression during the late Aptian in the NE interior of Brazil. Fossil crabs were recorded in siltstones, locally placed ~ 48 m above the base of the unit. The specimens are tiny (~5 mm width) and represented only by carapace remains. They may correspond to exuviae or disarticulated carcasses. Morphologically, the carapaces close resemble those of Orithopsidae crabs, and may be referred to Planocarcinus and Aetocarcinus (?), respectively. These genera were also recorded in Aptian-Albian deposits of Colombia and United States, respectively. Therefore, the paleobiogeographic distribution of this group of crabs is extended into the NE Brazilian interior. Yet, they represent another unquestionable fossil evidence of marine invertebrates in the Romualdo Formation. Finally, our data suggest that the necrocarcinoid fauna that thrived in the Araripe Basin during the Romualdo Formation transgression was more diverse than previously realized.


P.65   Paleobiology Paleoecology of podotrematous crabs and galatheoid anomurans. Schweitzer C. E.*, Department of Geology, Kent State University at Stark, 6000 Frank Ave. NW, North Canton, Ohio 44720; Feldmann R. M., Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242

Paleoecology of fossil podotrematous crabs is only beginning to be studied. Preliminary analysis of members of podotrematous families indicates that families preferentially inhabited specific types of environments as defined by rock type. Many dromiacean families are predominantly recovered from carbonate environments, whereas homoloids and raninoids exhibit a broader environmental preference. Extant families, in general, exhibit broader environmental preferences than extinct groups. Within families, genera in Dromiacea and Homoloidea as well as the anomuran Galatheoidea demonstrated niche partitioning during the Late Jurassic. Correspondence analysis of 29 Late Jurassic decapod collecting localities in Europe demonstrated sponge-microbial versus coral bioherms exhibited distinct podotrematous and galatheoid decapod faunas. Of 50 genera examined, 30 never were recorded from sponge-microbial environments, whereas all taxa occurred at least once in coral dominated environments. Genera within six families were only collected from coral facies, and genera within only two families were predominantly collected from sponge-dominated facies. Among members of Raninoida, some families are predominantly associated with siliciclastic environments, whereas others are dominantly collected from carbonates. Niche partitioning among podotrematous brachyurans and galatheoids parallels that seen at the infraorder level in Decapoda, wherein specific groups of decapods generally inhabit specific types of environments, which remains consistent through time.


P.66   Paleobiology PRELIMINARY PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE ENIGMATIC CYCLOIDEA. Feldmann Rodney M.*, Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 USA; Schinker Megan; Schweitzer Carrie E.; Maguire Evin

The crustacean Cycloidea comprise a heterogeneous assemblage of small, ovoid creatures ranging in age from Carboniferous to Late Cretaceous. Although some exhibit well-defined head regions, antennal structures, and short, jointed appendages, variations in other morphological features suggests that they do not comprise a coherent group. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses, based upon examination of as many type and figured specimens as possible, coupled with photographs of other non-type specimens, suggests that the current systematic arrangement requires re-evaluation. Selection and coding of characters for analysis is limited and subjective, in part, because of preservational bias. Appendages were not scored because of paucity of specimens. Cuticle is absent in nearly all specimens; preservation is generally moldic. Specimens may expose dorsal surfaces, ventral surfaces or, rarely, internal features including gill bundles. Although representatives of Carboniferous species from Great Britain and the United States may be numerous, most taxa are based upon one, or just a few specimens. Previously named taxa were proposed based upon different preservational aspects necessitating reconsideration. Of the 45 named species arrayed into 16 genera, specimens documenting 6 species have been lost, 2 species are probable synonyms, and at least 2 may be referable to taxa other than Cycloidea. The current cladistic analysis suggests six well-defined clades and a few unresolved taxa. Shape of the carapace, small size, and presence of short legs with hooked dactyli on some species suggest either benthic or parasitic lifestyles.


P.67   Paleobiology RISE OF SHRIMP DIVERSITY FROM THE ARARIPE BASIN (CRETACEOUS: APTIAN/ALBIAN): THE FIRST SOLENOCERIDAE (DECAPODA:DENDROBRANCHIATA). Pinheiro A.P.*, Laboratorio de Crustáceos do Semiárido, Universidade Regional do Cariri/URCA, Crato, Brazil; Santana W., Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação, Universidade Sagrado Coração/USC, Bauru, Brazil; Oliveira G.R, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco-UFRPE, Recife, Brazil; Alencar D.R., Laboratorio de Crustáceos do Semiárido, Universidade Regional do Cariri/URCA, Crato, Brazil; Saraiva A.A.F., Laboratório de Paleontologia da URCA, Universidade Regional do Cariri/URCA, Crato, Brazil

The Araripe Basin is known worldwide about the preservation quality and quantity of its fossils. In the last years, the number of crustacean fossils from that basin is increasing rapidly, most of them shrimps from several families. Until now, two carideans, two sergestideans and one Luciferidae are known from the area. Here we present a new finding to increase the number of species and a different family to this group. The specimens collected is considered to be a Solenoceridae shrimp by the presence of a rostrum shorter than the antennular peduncle, a post-orbital spine and a well-marked cervical sulcus. The new shrimp differs significantly from the other known Dendrobranchiata species of the Araripe Basin. It is easily distinguished from Araripenaeus timidus, which has a marked sinuous cicatrix in the sixth abdominal somite and Paleomattea deliciosa that has its sixth abdominal somite two times longer than the anterior somites. Both characteristics are not observed at this new shrimp material.


P.68   Parasitology FIRST REPORT OF MORPHOLOGICAL ANOMALY IN DEEP-SEA SHRIMPS OF THE GENUS GLYPHOCRANGON A. MILNE-EDWARDS FOR THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. ALVES-JUNIOR F.A., Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil; ARAUJO M.S.L.C.*, Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil; SOUZA-FILHO J.F., Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil

Morphological malformation is a type of anomaly resulting from an abnormal development in animal ontogeny. In marine environmental, especially in crustaceans, these anomalies are related primarily to genetic factors, predation or due to pollution, but these changes have not been previously reported for carideans shrimps of the genus Glyphocrangon A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. In this paper, we report morphological abnormality for deep-sea shrimps of the species Glyphocrangon aculeata Milne Edwards, 1881. The samplings were carried out in Potiguar Basin between the States of Rio Grande do Norte e Ceará, both located in the Northeast of Brazil, aboard R/V Luke Thomas and R/V Seward Johnson in 2009 and 2011 respectively, through of bottom trawls of an approximately 30 minutes duration were conducted on the continental slope along the isobaths of 400 m, 1.000 m and 2.000 m, using a semi-balloon otter trawl with 50 mm mesh size and 18 m opening. Only one ovigerous female collected at 1074 m of depth was registered with abnormalities in some regions of the carapace as: rostrum reaching only 2/3 of the scaphocerite length, absence of antennal spine; abdomen with carinae less pronounced and telson short, strongly recurved and not exceeding uropods tip. Those characteristics indicates that, besides possible physical damage on the animal's body, genetics alterations or nutritional deficiencies indicators, might be associated with these morphological variations observed in the anomalous exemplary.


P.69   Parasitology IMPACT OF ACANTHOCEPHALAN PARASITISM ON THE FECUNDITY OF THE PACIFIC MOLE CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA. BHADURI R.N.*, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University Stanislaus, Turlock, CA 95382, USA; YAMAGUCHI T.; MUNGUIA K.; SANDHU R.

Parasites may influence their hosts in multiple ways, ranging from physiological changes and behavioral modifications to altering certain life history traits, like fecundity, in their host populations. The acanthocephalan parasite, Profilicollis altmani, commonly infects the Pacific mole crab, Emerita analoga; yet, this parasite’s effect on the crab’s fecundity is unknown. Consequently, we examined the effects of parasitism on various aspects of fecundity of this mole crab species. Crabs were collected from the swash intertidal zone in Monterey Bay, California, in September 2017. We recorded crab’s body size, egg-bearing status, egg developmental stage, parasite prevalence and infection intensity, parasite volume, and crab dry mass. To quantify fecundity, eggs from gravid crabs were carefully removed, counted and weighed. Of the 124 crabs examined, 94 (75.8%) were gravid and 30 (24.2%) were non-gravid. Parasite prevalence was 86.2% in gravid and 73.3% in non-gravid crabs. There was a significant positive relationship between parasite intensity and host body size, indicating that the acanthocephalan did not affect growth or survival of their crab host. Egg mass was unaffected by both infection intensity and mean cystacanth volume. No significant differences were noted when egg mass between uninfected and infected crabs were compared. Similarly, no significant difference was documented between different developmental stages in uninfected and infected gravid crabs. Our study suggests that the fecundity of E. analoga remains mostly unaffected by P. altmani.


P.70   Parasitology FIRST REPORT OF THE ECTOPARASITIC ISOPOD, HOLOPHRYXUS ACANTHEPHYRAE STEPHENSEN, 1912 (CYMOTHOIDA: DAJIDAE) IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC, FROM A NEW HOST, THE DEEP-SEA SHRIMP, ACANTHEPHYRA ACANTHITELSONIS SPENCE BATE, 1888. ALVES-JUNIOR F.A., Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil; BERTRAND A., Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil; ARAUJO M.S.L.C.*, Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil; PAIVA R.J.C., Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil; SOUZA-FILHO J.F., Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil

The crustacean family of isopods, Dajidae, comprises 18 genera containing 54 species with widespread distribution. The species of this family are ectoparasites, especially on euphausiids, mysids and shrimps. The species of Holophryxus acanthephyrae has a life cycle involving a first intermediate host (copepod) and a definitive host (shrimp), and adheres particularly on deep-sea shrimps of genus Acanthephyra. Here, we make the first report of dajid isopod Holophryxus acanthephyrae from Brazilian waters (South Atlantic) and the first occurrence as parasite on deep-sea shrimp Acanthephyra acanthitelsonis. The specimen was collected under the framework of the project "ABRACOS 2" (Acoustic along the BRazilian COast), on board of R/V Antea in April 2017, using a micronekton net (mesh size of 10 mm) in Rocas Atoll, with stations between 40–1660 m depth. The specimen female of H. acanthephyrae was found in pelagic zone in Rocas Atoll, at 630 m depth, at water mass South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) with temperature of 4.8 °C, adhered on postero-dorsal margin of the carapace of the deep-sea shrimp A. acanthitelsonis. Thus, this work updates the record of H. acanthephyrae with the first observation in Brazilian waters. Also we provide the first observation of parasitism on A. acanthitelsonis, raising the knowledge on Dajidae family, their host range, and on deeper waters studies in Brazil.


P.71   Reproduction Exploring the Effect of Phyletic Dwarfism on the Static Allometry of Reproductive Traits: Fecundity, Egg Size, and Reproductive Output in the Pygmy Crab Petamithrax pygmaeus . Mullen H.*, Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634; Baeza J.A., Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634; Baeza J.

The marine crab Petamithrax pygmaeus is one of the smallest crabs in the superfamily (Majoidea) reaching body sizes no larger than 7.0 mm carapace width (CW). Little is known about the reproductive biology of marine invertebrates exhibiting phyletic dwarfism. This study reports on egg production (fecundity, egg size, and reproductive output) of this dwarf species. Fecundity varied between 75 and 310 eggs crab-1 with a mean ± SD of 150 ± 53 eggs crab-1 and increased significantly with female CW. Embryo volume varied between 0.13 and 0.19 mm3 with a mean ± SD of 0.15 ± 0.01 mm3 and did not increase with female CW. Reproductive output (RO) represented a mean ± SD of 5.92% ± 2.05% of female dry body weight (DBW), and a significant correlation was observed between female DBW and dry weight of the egg mass. The brood mass (RO) of P. pygmaeus increased proportionally (isometrically) with increases in female body size. Fecundity and egg size are within expected ranges for minute species of crabs in the superfamily Majoidea and thus, phyletic dwarfism does not appear to affect reproductive performance in this species.


P.72   Reproduction FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE GENE NETWORK GOVERNING EMBRYONIC AND ADULT NEUROGENESIS IN PROCAMBARID CRAYFISH. BRENNEIS G.*, Neuroscience Program, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 USA; SCHWENTNER M., Abteilung Wirbellose II, Centrum für Naturkunde, Universität Hamburg, 20146 Germany; BENTON J.L., Neuroscience Program, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 USA; BELTZ B.S., Neuroscience Program, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 USA

Two decades after its discovery, the system producing neurons in the midbrain of adult decapod crustaceans is one of the best understood invertebrate models of life-long neurogenesis. The neurogenic system in crayfish has proved particularly suitable for in vivo and in vitro approaches. As a result, studies on Procambarus clarkii have recently indicated a lack of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult neurogenic niche, suggesting instead replenishment of its neural precursor pool by hemocytes of the innate immune system. In contrast, embryonic neurogenesis is driven by “canonical” NSCs. To better characterize the cell types involved in “canonical” embryonic and “non-canonical” adult neurogenesis of crayfish, we identified members of gene families involved in arthropod neurogenesis/neural differentiation (SoxB, Achaete-Scute-Complex and Snail transcription factors, Prospero, Elav). We then performed in situ hybridization on embryos and adult brains, the latter coupled to in vivo cell proliferation experiments. Our embryonic data confirm gene expression in the expected neurogenic regions and cell types, as predicted by other arthropod studies. Further, we demonstrate expression of several genes in the adult system, including SoxB in the niche, Snail in some niche cells and migrating neural precursors, and Elav in advanced neural precursors and neurons. This is one of the first crustacean studies to address neurogenic gene expression at the cellular level. We show the suitability of this approach to characterize cell types along the embryonic and adult pathways, making it a crucial step towards unraveling the gene network governing neural differentiation of hemocytes in the adult brain.


P.73   Reproduction BRACHYURY AND ENGRAILED GENES IDENTIFIED FROM PENAEID SHRIMP GENOMES AND TRANSCRIPTOMES. Hertzler PL*, Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 USA; Baugh WM, Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 USA; Wei J, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Droste AP, Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 USA; Yuan J, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Ziang J, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Hertzler Philip

The recent publication of genomes and developmental transcriptomes for several penaeid shrimp species (Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata: Penaeidae) has allowed the identification of shrimp orthologs of genes involved in embryonic development. Our objectives were to identify the coding sequence (CDS) and gene structure of the transcription factors brachyury (bra), known in other animals to be involved in mesoderm and/or endoderm specification and regulation of gastrulation movements, and engrailed (en), involved in segmentation and neural specification. We mined the sequence databases for bra and en from the shrimp species Marsupenaeus japonicus, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Penaeus monodon. Additional sequence was obtained by PCR from an outgroup dendrobranchiate Sicyonia ingentis (Sicyoniidae). The CDS encoded shrimp Brachyury (Bra) proteins of 551-552 amino acids containing the highly conserved T-box DNA binding region. The N-terminal Smad1-binding domain was absent in shrimp Bra, as in dipteran insects. The R1 repressor domain was the best conserved of the C-terminal regulatory domains, which were widely divergent compared to other species. The penaeid shrimp bra gene consisted of six exons, with splice sites conserved with other phyla across the animal kingdom. Real-time PCR showed that shrimp bra mRNA was strongly expressed during gastrulation. We also obtained the complete CDS for en from several penaeid shrimp species, which encoded a protein of 252 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis identified this as en1, known to be expressed in neuronal tissues in higher crustaceans. The penaeid en gene consisted of three exons containing the CDS, with splice sites conserved with the caridean shrimp Caridina multidentata.


P.74   Reproduction A TOUR OF THE FANTASTIC DIVERSITY OF BODY FORMS OF “NAUPLIUS Y” (CRUSTACEA: THECOSTRACA: FACETOTECTA), AS EXEMPLIFIED BY POPULATIONS IN OKINAWA AND TAIWAN. GRYGIER. M.J*, Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224 TAIWAN (ROC); DREYER N., Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, DENMARK; OLESEN J., Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, DENMARK; HØEG J.T., Marine Biology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, DENMARK

Twelve named species of Hansenocaris and a roughly equal number of other variously designated “types” of facetotectan larvae, some based exclusively on specimens of “nauplius y”, have been characterized in the literature. Especially in East Asian waters, many remain unpublished. Aside from a handful of enthusiasts, zoologists have had no chance to see their true diversity of form. This is unfortunate, inasmuch as the Facetotecta are known only from the nauplius and cypris larvae and a subsequent slug-like juvenile stage, the ypsigon. Extensive plankton sampling and laboratory rearing of facetotectans conducted at Sesoko Island, Okinawa, in 1996-97 and 2003-2005 and at Keelung and Green Island, Taiwan, in 2017 has allowed us to recognize dozens of undescribed species, particularly of lecithotrophic forms. Here we try to show the scale of this diversity, using SEM photographs of whole nauplii and stacked digital DIC photographs of late (usually last) naupliar molts. Besides the already familiar forms that resemble miniature horseshoe crabs, others are long and attenuate, or long and cylindrical, or variously capsule-shaped, pot-bellied, discoidal, downturned-triangular, downturned-stubby, or even bent at a nearly 90 degrees. Some have the labral swelling semicircular, trapezoidal, or hoe-shaped, or drawn out into a short or long spine, or have lateral “trunk” spines, or extremely reduced or enlarged furcal spines. Despite this diversity it is easy to recognize specimens of nauplius y: no frontolateral horns, no furcal setae but (usually) a pair of furcal spines, and a long dorsal “trunk” surface distinct from the cephalic shield.


P.75   Reproduction TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS FOR MOLTING PROCESS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI. Yi Gao*, Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China; Fuhua Li, Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China; Jianhai Xiang, Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

Molting is one of the most important biological processes in shrimp growth and development. All shrimp undergo cyclic molting periodically to shed and replace their exoskeletons. This process is essential for growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying shrimp molting remain poorly understood. We investigated global expression changes in the transcriptomes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, the most commonly cultured shrimp species worldwide. The transcriptome of whole L. vannamei was investigated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) throughout the molting cycle, including the inter-molt (C), pre-molt (D0, D1, D2, D3, D4), and post-molt (P1 and P2) stages, and 93,756 unigenes were identified. Among these genes, we identified 5,117 genes differentially expressed (log2ratio _1 and FDR _0.001) in adjacent molt stages. The results were compared against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant protein/nucleotide sequence database, Swiss- Prot, PFAM database, the Gene Ontology database, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database in order to annotate gene descriptions, associate them with gene ontology terms, and assign them to pathways. The expression patterns for genes involved in several molecular events critical for molting, such as hormone regulation, triggering events, implementation phases, skelemin, immune responses were characterized and considered as mechanisms underlying molting in L. vannamei. Comparisons with transcriptomic analyses in other arthropods were also performed. The characterization of major transcriptional changes in genes involved in the molting cycle provides candidates for future investigation of the molecular mechanisms.


P.76   Reproduction I AM NOT A LARVA, BUT I LOOK LIKE ONE – ERRONEOUS IDENTIFICATIONS AMONG LARVAL MATERIAL AND WHAT WE CAN LEARN FROM THEM. Haug J.T.*, Department Biology II, LMU Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany; Haug C., Department Biology II, LMU Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany

Sorting plankton samples is a hard task; there are so many forms and so much material. Naturally, we all make mistakes. Yet, making mistakes is not the main problem, but the way we deal with them. Often, when identified, such mistakes are simply corrected. In this way, we do not gain very much besides the correction. Instead we should ask what the specimen has in common with the specimen it had been mistaken for. Why has a certain specimen been mistaken for a certain type of larva, but is something different? Especially in regularly occurring cases of misidentification, these mistakes must be based on specific traits. After checking different historical museum collections we can sum up some common misidentifications and also draw possible conclusions from them. Examples include pelagic mysid shrimps that were mistaken for crab megalopa larvae, or deep sea amphipods that have been sorted among decapod larval material. A very common triplet of intermixing are larval forms of the alien-like decapod Amphionides reynaudii, phyllosoma-type larvae of achelatan lobsters, and the alima and erichthus larvae of mantis shrimps. Certain morphological features must be the basis for these mistakes, always leading to the same results in very different collections. A similar morphology that leads to such misidentifications could point to similar functions in only distantly related groups. With this, these mistakes may already provide a rough indication for cases of convergence and allow us to further explore this still not well formulated concept.


P.77   Reproduction AN UNUSUAL TYPE OF MANTIS SHRIMP LARVA. Haug C.*, Department Biology II, LMU Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany; Haug G.T., Department Biology II, LMU Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany; Haug J.T., Department Biology II, LMU Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany

Mantis shrimps are impressive benthic predators when they are adults. When they are larvae, they are part of the plankton, but likewise predatory. Mantis shrimp larvae can grow to astonishing sizes of about 50 mm, especially the so-called alima larvae of squillid mantis shrimps. Yet, also another type of mantis shrimp larva, the erichthus, can grow to astonishing sizes, for example those of lysiosquilloid mantis shrimps. Only recently we reported a number of different new types of erichthus larvae with very large and prominent shields. Among them was a specimen with a shield roughly resembling a flying saucer. Here we report a new specimen strongly resembling the 'flying saucer' specimen in overall shape but with differences concerning the raptorial appendages. As the specimen was partly damaged, we decided to remove the appendages and document them in detail. All structures were photographed on a fluorescence microscope exploiting the autofluorescence capacities of the cuticle. Especially fine setae were additionally documented using phase-contrast transmitted-light microscopy. All images were enhanced by recording each image detail as a stack that was later on fused into a single sharp image, and by stitching several such optimised image details into large panorama images.


P.78   Reproduction EFFECTS OF PREY DENSITIES AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB CALLINECTES SAPIDUS RATHBUN, 1896 (BRACHYURA: PORTUNIDAE). Maurer L., Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 701 E. Pratt Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA; Chung J. Sook

Variation in larval development related to duration and number of stages is common among arthropods. This variation appears to be influenced largely by environmental factors such as prey availability and temperature, but the primary causes are poorly understood. We examined the effects of prey density and the use of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), an energy-storage compound, on larval duration and survival during the early development of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896), using hatchery-raised animals at constant temperature (21–23 °C). We also determined the daily food consumption by zoeae and the number of zoeal stages that are required to reach the final megalopa stage. Newly-hatched zoeae of C. sapidus were reared until megalopae in 24 well plates under high and low prey density with and without PHB supplementation (50 and 100 mg/l). Food consumption only was significantly different when a high density of Artemia, used as food, during later development. The zoeae raised under a high prey density had a shorter duration by having fewer zoeal stages and greater survival rate than those with a low prey density. PHB supplementation, with a combination of a high prey density, increased the incidences of stage skipping without changing the duration of zoeal development. Prey density, possibly affecting the nutritional status of larvae, is a critical factor that influences the zoeal development of C. sapidus.


P.79   Reproduction MATING DYNAMICS OF EASTERN BERING SEA SNOW CRAB: PREVIEW OF GENETIC ANALYSIS. Slater L.M.*, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Kodiak, AK 99615 USA and University of Alaska Fairbanks, College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Juneau, AK 99801 USA; Jackson T.M., Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Kodiak, AK 99615 USA; Kruse G.H., University of Alaska Fairbanks, College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Juneau, AK 99801 USA; Grant. W.S., Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Genetics Laboratory, Anchorage, AK 99518 USA; Habicht C., Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Genetics Laboratory, Anchorage, AK 99518 USA; Grauvogel Z., Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Genetics Laboratory, Anchorage, AK 99518 USA; Cheng W., Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Genetics Laboratory, Anchorage, AK 99518 USA; Webb J.B., formerly Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Juneau, AK 99802 USA; Pengilly D., retired; formerly Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Kodiak, AK 99615 USA; Daly B., Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Kodiak, AK 99615 USA

Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) support the largest and most valuable crab fishery in Alaska and are managed with a large-male only harvest strategy. We collected measures of female sperm reserves and archived spermathecae samples annually over a 10-year period to improve understanding of mating dynamics. Evaluating spatiotemporal trends in female sperm reserves has provided critical insight into functional relationships among female reproductive potential, maternal characteristics including reproductive stage (primiparous and multiparous) and size, and mating success. However, inferences about mating dynamics is hampered by a lack of empirical information on contributing male mates, including the extent to which polyandry within a mating season and interspecies mating occurs, the latter as evidenced by the presence of viable snow-Tanner hybrid crab in the EBS. We will develop and validate genetic markers and determine the number and species of males that contributed to the sperm reserves of primiparous and multiparous snow crab in the EBS over our 10-year study. Additionally, we will look at the paternity of brooded embryos to evaluate whether the sperm reserves contains a complete record of male mates. These empirical data will improve our inferences about mating dynamics based on measures of female sperm reserves and sex ratios. This is the first year of our study, so we will present our research objectives and approach.


P.80   Reproduction THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF THE NORWAY LOBSTER NEPHROPS NORVEGICUS: OVARY MATURATION AND STAGING SCALES. BECKER C*, Queen’s University Marine Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, 12-13 The Strand, Portaferry BT22 1PF, United Kingdom; CUNNINGHAM E.M., Queen’s University Marine Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, 12-13 The Strand, Portaferry BT22 1PF, United Kingdom; DICK J.T.A., Queen’s University Marine Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, 12-13 The Strand, Portaferry BT22 1PF, United Kingdom; SIGWART J.D., Queen’s University Marine Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, 12-13 The Strand, Portaferry BT22 1PF, United Kingdom

Sustainable management of crustaceans relies on knowledge of the reproductive cycle in exploited species. Maturity scales for female Norway Lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, have been subject to a series of changes and various scales are in use in different fisheries regions. To date, a unified, evidence-based scale has not been established. We have reviewed previous staging scales and propose a revised scale based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. In order to provide better-informed tools for future stock assessment, female stages were characterised through external observation on ovary colour, size and extension, and the progress of vitellogenesis in maturing oocytes. Our study clarifies several biological phases and reveals an alternative pathway in the reproductive cycle in females that resorb their ovaries instead of spawning. We demonstrate how to distinguish between immature ovaries in juvenile females versus the earliest ovary maturation stage in adults. The new scale also differentiates between “mottled” ovaries seen in two separate biological stages: the spent ovaries which undergo partial resorption in berried females, versus ovaries of females which fail to spawn, skip one reproductive cycle and undergo full resorption. To ensure consistent application, colours are assessed relative to international standards (RAL/Pantone). This new, practical staging scheme clarifies the correlation between microscopic characteristics and macroscopically observable details in gonad colour, size and texture. The proposed staging scale has the potential to improve the resolution of maturity analyses and identify a potentially reduced reproductive capacity of stocks in future demographic studies when females are observed to resorb their ovaries. This study was funded by Seafish (UK) and Kilkeel/Whitby Seafoods (UK) (grant number SR-7941610).


P.81   Reproduction CLONING CRAYFISH CELL CULTURE. FAULKES Z*, Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78539 USA; DELEON H, Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78539 USA; THOMAS J, Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78539 USA

The parthenogenetic marbled crayfish, Marmorkrebs, is an emerging model organism. For example, it is the only decapod crustacean with a sequenced genome, and several labs have used Marmorkrebs as a model for embryonic development. One difficulty in studying embryonic cells is that eggs contain a large amount of yolk, which can make imaging embryonic cells difficult. We successfully isolated and cultured cells from early stage Marmorkrebs embryos, and confirmed their identity using DNA sequencing. Cellular and molecular tools for use in crayfish are underdeveloped compared to other model organisms, and cultured embryonic cells could provide a new testbed for those techniques.


P.82   Reproduction IMPACTS OF REPEAT SPAWNING ON LIPID CONTENT AND FECUNDITY-ASSOCIATED REGULATORY PATHWAYS IN GIANT TIGER SHRIMP, PENAEUS MONODON. Goodall J.D., School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia; Botwright N., CSIRO Aquaculture, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St Lucia, 4067, Australia; Coman G.J., CSIRO Aquaculture, Bribie Island Research Centre, Woorim, 4507, Australia; Wade N.M.*, CSIRO Aquaculture, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St Lucia, 4067, Australia

Low fecundity of domesticated Giant Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a major constraint to the development of selective breeding programs and supply of genetically improved broodstock. Greater understanding of the molecular pathways controlling reproduction could assist in increasing fecundity though improved nutrition or genetic selection targeted on key reproductive pathways. The present study sought to characterize the early tissue composition and gene regulatory changes that contribute to decreased fecundity in a homogeneous population of domesticated P. monodon fed identical high-performance maturation diets. Results suggested that lipid composition had a greater influence on reproductive performance than total lipid content, and that the specific fatty acids were critical to maintaining reproductive performance in P. monodon. In particular, the variability in ovarian arachidonic acid (ARA) resulted in a significant positive correlation with the expression of prostaglandin synthesis genes, PmcPLA2 and PmCOX, with significant variation in the expression of PmCOX, PmPGFS, PmPGE1 and PmPGE3 in groups with high or low ARA content. Further RNAseq analysis identified a total of 757 genes with greater than 2-fold expression increase or decrease in groups with high or low ARA content, but genes extremely poor assignment to functional gene ontology groups. Differential gene expression analysis demonstrated that variation in ARA has direct impact on the synthesis of key downstream prostaglandin synthesis genes, which have potent roles in broodstock egg production and maturation, and elucidates a suite of currently uncharacterized genes for P. monodon that may influence reproductive performance.


P.83   Systematics THE FIRST COMPLETE MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME OF A PARASITIC ISOPOD SUPPORTS EPICARIDEA AS A SUBORDER AND REVEALS THE LESS CONSERVATIVE GENOME OF ISOPODS. Boyko C.B.*, Department of Biology, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549 USA; Yu J., School of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, 041000, P. R. China; An J., School of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, 041000, P. R. China; Li Y., School of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, 041000, P. R. China

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the holoparasitic isopod Gyge ovalis (Shiino, 1939) has been determined. The mitogenome is 14268 bp in length and contains 34 genes: 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA, 19 tRNA and a control region. Three tRNA genes (trnE , trnI, and trnS1) are missing. Most of the tRNA show secondary structures which derive from the usual cloverleaf pattern except trnC which is characterized by the loss of the DHU-arm. Compared to the isopod ground pattern and Eurydice pulchra Leach, 1815, in the suborder Cymothoida, the genome of G. ovalis shows few differences, with changes only around the control region. However, the genome of G. ovalis is very different from that of non-cymothoidan isopods, and reveals that the gene order evolution in isopods is less conservative compared to other crustaceans. Phylogenic trees were constructed using Maxiumum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses based on 13 protein-coding genes. The results do not support the placement of G. ovalis with E. pulchra and Bathynomus sp. in the same suborder; rather, G. ovalis appears to have a closer relationship to Ligia oceanica (Linnaeus, 1767), but this result suggests a need for more data and further analysis. Nevertheless, these results cast doubt that Epicaridea can be placed as an infraorder within the suborder Cymothoida, and Epicaridea appears to also deserve subordinal rank. Further development of robust phylogenetic relationships across Isopoda will require more genetic data from a greater diversity of taxa belonging to all isopod suborders.


P.84   Systematics REVISITING THE PHYLOGENY AND CLASSIFICATION OF PENAEUS SENSU LATO (DECAPODA, DENDROBRANCHIATA, PENAEIDAE). YANG C.H.*, Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan ROC; MA K.Y., Simon F. S. Li Marine Science Laboratory, School of Life, Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong ; CHU K.H., Simon F. S. Li Marine Science Laboratory, School of Life, Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong; CHAN T.Y., Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan ROC

Penaeus sensu lato Fabricius, 1798 consists of 33 species and is the most commercially important group in the family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815. Recently this genus was divided into six genera based on morphological characters. However, many molecular phylogenetic analyses suggested that some of these recently established genera may not be monophyletic. Therefore, Penaeus sensu lato (i.e. in a broad sense) is used to refer to these shrimps for avoiding the arguments of the validity of these recently established genera. The present study attempts to add more molecular markers, including 3 genes of mitochondrial DNA (COI, 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA) and 5 genes of nuclear DNA (28S rRNA, histone 3, NaK, PEPCK and AK), as well as increase the taxonomic coverage to 28 species in order to have an interpretation on the phylogenetic relationships among these shrimps for revising their higher classification. Furthermore, Ancestral State Reconstruction (ASR) analysis will be performed to elucidate the character evolution in Penaeus sensu lato.


P.85   Systematics AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF MICROCERBERIDEA LANG, 1961 (PERACARIDA, ISOPODA). KIM J.H., Department of Life science, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; LEE W.C., Department of Life science, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; KARANOVIC I.*, Department of Life science, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia

The suborder Microcerberidea comprising over 40 species, 8 genera and 2 families is one of the typical minute isopod highly specialized to the narrow space including marine interstitial and subterranean environment. The phylogenetic placement of the Microcerberidea is classically defined as a sister group of Asellota. However, previous studies to discuss on the origin of microcerberid and the detail relationship with other asellotan group are still controversial and requires additional works. Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic assessment of relationship between Microcerberidea and other related taxa. Furthermore, the cladistic analysis using morphological characters that appear synapomorphies for the studied groups are presented. To address this, we chose two species of Coxicerberus, representing Microcerberidea, collected from Korea and Australia for three ribosomal DNA (16S, 18S and 28S) and analyzed individual and concatenate datasets with other NCBI data using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. For the cladistics study, 50 characters of 8 genera of Microcerberidea and 10 genera of Asellota were coded and analyzed with Maximum Parsimony method. Our analysis of both morphological and molecular data yielded consistent result representing the fresh water asellotans such as Stenasellidae and Asellidae are the most closely related to Microcerberidea while, other marine group, Janiroidea is to be distantly related. Our result possibly proposes that the current subordinal rank of Microcerberidea should be reconsidered and reassigned to the family level rank included in Asellota.


P.86   Systematics EVOLUTION OF FRESHWATER CRABS IN LAKE MALAWI IN THE AFRICAN RIFT VALLEY. JOHNSON E.C.*, Department of Biology, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855 USA; CUMBERLIDGE N., Department of Biology, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855 USA

Lake Malawi is the southernmost great lake in the African Rift Valley and is home to a single freshwater crab species, the Malawi blue crab (Potamonautes lirrangensis) (Rathbun, 1904). While previous studies have focused generally on phylogeny (Daniels et al., 2015), biogeography, and conservation of Afrotropical freshwater crabs (Cumberlidge et al., 2009), little is known about the species diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the freshwater crabs of Malawi, including Lake Malawi. This large Rift Valley lake is well known for its rapidly evolving species of cichlid fish; however, little information is present regarding the evolution of the notably species-poor freshwater crabs present in the same lake. The Malawi blue crab is currently assigned to P. lirrangensis, and while its distribution includes other Rift Valley lakes besides Lake Malawi and the Congo River basin, its current taxonomic assignment remains controversial. A detailed molecular analysis of this widespread morphologically similar-looking species may reveal distinct genetic lineages within the taxon from elsewhere in its range that could prove to be different, but cryptic, species. Through detailed examination and identification of distinct morphological characters, coupled with next generation RAD sequencing, this study aims to accomplish the following: (i) Assess the true diversity of Malawi’s freshwater crab fauna; (ii) Determine the species status of the Malawi blue crab as either widespread or unique to Lake Malawi; and (iii) Study evolutionary adaptation in Lake Malawi freshwater crab fauna.


P.87   Systematics SHRIMPS OF THE ‘CUAPETES–PALAEMONELLA COMPLEX’ (CARIDEA: PALAEMONIDAE) ON THEIR WAY TO PRIMARY SYMBIOSES. Frolová P.*, Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, CZ; Horká I., Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, CZ; Ďuriš Z., Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, CZ

The majority of the coral reef shrimps Palaemonidae are associated with various invertebrates. However, the target group of our study is basally separated from the main group of symbiotic palaemonids and contains 10 genera. The most species-rich of these are Cuapetes and Palaemonella. The members of the complex exhibit wide variety of lifestyles (from predominate free-living to both facultative and obligatory symbiosis) and, therefore, the complex may represent an appropriate model for the study of the evolution of symbiosis in palaemonid shrimps. To this end, however, the reliable phylogeny of the complex must be inferred. According to both ML and BI phylogenies based on four molecular markers (16S rRNA, CO1, H3, and 18S rRNA), the polyphyletic genus Cuapetes is represented by four independent lineages, whereas Palaemonella seems to be paraphyletic as it includes the genus Vir and Atlantic Cuapetes americanus. Furthermore, a representative of a new genus was found in a material from Papua New Guinea raising the number of known genera within the complex to 11. The results of the Ancestral State Reconstruction suggests that the ectosymbiotic shrimps evolved from free-living ancestors independently several times. While some of these diverged into the entire clades of ectosymbionts (Vir, Philarius, Harpilius, Ischnopontonia and Anapontonia), others represent an isolated ectosymbiotic species (C. amymone, C. kororensis, C. nilandensis, and P. pottsi) within the clades dominated by free-living relatives. The study is supported by project SGS/PřF/18, and program of Support for science and research (RRC/10/2017). P. Frolová is scholarship holder of Ostrava city.


P.88   Systematics PHYLOGENETIC REVISION OF THE SEMI-TERRESTRIAL CRAB SPECIES, GENUS GECARCINUS LEACH, 1814 (BRACHYURA: GRAPSOIDEA: GECARCINIDAE) FROM MEXICO. Toledano Carrasco I.A.*, Department of zoology, Institute of Biology of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Villalobos Hiriart J.L., Department of zoology, Institute of Biology of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

The geographical isolation caused by the emersion of the Isthmus of Panama has favored the speciation process of many species. Within the populations that were separated are those of the genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814: G. lateralis (Freminville, 1835), G. nobilii Perger and Wall, 2014, G. quadratusDeSaussure, 1853 and G. ruricola (Linnaeus, 1758). Taxonomically, several authors have tried to differentiate these species, using morphologic characters that show a high intra-population variability, which has made its identification difficult, that is why some of them were considered synonymous. In this work, a molecular analysis was performed with G. lateralis and G. quadratus, comparing specimens from the Mexican coasts,Pacific and the Atlantic.Mitochondrial genes COI and 16S were used, to corroborate the presence of two different lineages that morphologically are very similar. The results showed the separation of two clades strongly supported, one for the population of the Gulf of Mexico and in another to the Pacific coast. Also, it was obtained a high interspecific genetic distance in comparison with the intraspecific one, confirming the existence of G. quadratus as a valid species and not as a synonym of G. lateralis.Regarding the morphological revision, there are populations that present high variability in different characters, including sexual appendages. No characters that can clearly differentiate these species have been found.


P.89   Systematics LOOKING FOR SACCULINA (RHIZOCEPHALA, CIRRIPEDIA). GALINDO L.A., UFR de sciences. Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines. 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78000 Versailles France; PELLEN F., UMR 7208 BOREA, Sorbonne Universités, MNHN, UCN, UA, CNRS, IRD, CP26 75231, 43 rue Cuvier, 75005, Paris Cedex 05, France; RABET N.; AUDEBERT F.*

Sacculina is the most common cirriped parasite in marine and brackish waters. It includes 85% of all rhizocephalan diversity although there is not a clear synapomorphy that gathers all these species together. We revised the phylogenetic relationships within Sacculinidae and stablished limits and contains of genus Sacculina. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences were obtained from the Sacculinidae collection deposited at the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. The 200 COI sequences were used to estimate a gene tree using Bayesian inferences. Subsequently, one individual per lineage was sequenced for the 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Rhizocephala emerged as monophyletic and a sister group of Thoracica. Within the “Kentrogonids”, Peltogastridae was found to be paraphyletic. One clade included all species previously considered as Sacculina merged with other genera (ex. Loxothylacus or Heterosaccus), rendering the current concept of "Sacculina" as polyphyletic. Clearly, the tree showed two mayor diversification events within the Sacculina-clade, and only one contained Sacculina carcini, the type species of the genus. Not a clear biogeographic pattern was revealed from the phylogeny. Atlantic and Indo-pacific species can be siblings, and sympatric species may not be closely related, suggesting the occurrence of repetitive colonization events. Given that different lineages were found to parasitize the same decapod species, this suggests a strong convergence of the Sacculina phenotype traits adapted to parasitism. Clearly, the history of life traits of Sacculina are much more complex than expected and classification of this group does not reflect its evolutionary path.


P.91   Systematics TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS PAGURUS FABRICIUS, 1775 “PROVENZANOI” GROUP (DECAPODA: ANOMURA: PAGURIDAE) FROM THE WESTERN ATLANTIC. SANTANA W.*, Universidade do Sagrado Coração – USC, Laboratório de Sistemática Zoológica, Bauru, SP, 17011-160 Brasil; LIMA D., Laboratório de Carcinologia, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulom P.O. Box 42.391, São Paulo, SP, 04218-970, Brazil

The Pagurus “provenzanoi” group currently comprises 26 hermit crab species distributed along the Western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific. The Atlantic component is represented by 12 species, occurring from Massachusetts to Argentina. Due to several problems of identification and doubts concerning the distributional boundaries involving these species, the aim of this study is to provide a taxonomic revision of the “provenzanoi” group, including a diagnosis, illustrations of the main diagnostic characters, and remarks about taxonomic issues of all 12 species. Specimens from the entire range of distribution of the “provenzanoi” group were analyzed from several carcinological collections. After the analyses of the material we could observe that: i) Pagurus brevidactylus and P. provenzanoi can be quickly differentiated by the setation of the chelipeds; ii) P. brevidactylus and P. criniticornis may represent a complex of sibling species; iii) P. trichocerus is a valid species; iv) P. annulipes and P. carolinensis have a restrict distribution in the east coast of United States and Gulf of Mexico; v) P. protuberocarpus remains known only from the type locality. The number of spines in ocular acicles, length of the antennal flagellum, length of the setae on antennal articles, shape and armature of the left cheliped and posterior margin of the telson were most valuable for identification purposes.


P.92   Systematics TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE EASTERN PACIFIC SPECIES OF STENOCIONOPS DESMAREST, 1823 (DECAPODA: BRACHYURA). Colavite J.*, Department of Zoology, University of São Paulo State, Botucatu, SP 18618-689 Brazil; Windsor A., Laboratório de Sistemática Zoológica, Pró-reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós-graduação, Universidade do Sagrado Coração, Bauru, SP 17011-160 Brazil; Santana W., Department of Health & Humans Services, Food and Drugs Administration, College Park MD 20740 USA

The Amphiamerican genus Stenocionops is composed by seven extant and three fossil species. The Atlantic species of Stenocionops, until recently, presented several taxonomic problems, which is not the case for the Pacific species. However, the Pacific species are poorly studied. As is the case for several other majoid taxa, the absence of good illustrations and the poorly detailed original descriptions have resulted in dubious synonymic lists. Here, we aimed to review the Pacific species of Stenocionops and clarify the taxonomic problems involving this genus, such as the synonymy between S. angustus and S. contigua. As a result, all three species were redescribed and illustrated in detail, and a complete identification key for genus Stenocionops was developed.


P.93   Systematics COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND PHYLOGENETIC CONTEXT OF THE SPERMATOZOA ULTRASTRUCTURE IN GRAPSOIDEA MACLEAY, 1838. Miranda I., Department of Biology, FCAV, Paulista State University, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil; Zara F.J., Department of Biology, FCAV, Paulista State University, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil; Mantelatto F.L.*, Department of Biology, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil; MANTELATTO FERNANDO

The superfamily Grapsoidea are presented in Brazil by the families Gecarcinidae, Grapsidae, Sesarmidae and Varunidae. Comparative studies on the spermatozoa ultrastructure have demonstrated to be informative and valuable to elucidate the phylogenetic relations among different groups, especially in Brachyura. The knowledge on the spermatozoa of grapsoid crabs distributed along the Brazilian coast is, however, insipid. Thus, our goal is to describe and compare the spermatozoa ultrastructure of the grapsoid crabs collected on the coast of São Paulo state and analyze patterns of distribution of the morphological characters from the spermatozoal analyses in a phylogenetic tree generated using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. For that purpose, adult males of 10 genera and 13 species were included (Geograpsus lividus, Goniopsis cruentata, Pachygrapsus gracilis, Pachygrapsus transversus, Aratus pisonii, Armases angustipes, Armases ricordi, Armases rubripes, Sesarma rectum, Cyclograpsus integer, Cyrtograpsus angulatus, Neohelice granulata and Plagusia depressa). Preliminary results indicate that the presence of perforatorial chamber, apical buttom, periopercular rim, accessory opercular ring and thickened ring are informative characters but each family has its peculiarities. By the end of this project, we expect to contribute to understand the evolutionary history of male reproductive system in Grapsoidea and in comparison with the remaining groups in Brachyura. Financial Support: Ciências do Mar II - Procs. 2005/2014 - 23038.004308/201414; #1989/2014 – 23038.004309/201451 ; BIOTA-FAPESP – Proc. 2010/50188-8; CNPq – Proc. 304968/2014-5


P.94   Systematics TAXONOMIC STATUS AND IDENTITY OF THE COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT PORTUNID CRAB, MONOMIA HAANII (STIMPSON, 1858) AND RESOLUTION OF THE PORTUNUS GLADIATOR SPECIES COMPLEX. Windsor AM*, Office of Regulatory Science US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740 USA; Mendoza JCE, Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum National University of Singapore, 117377 Singapore; Warner KA, OCEANA, Washington, DC 20036 USA; Choudhuri A, Newport International, St. Petersburg, FL 33704 USA; Deeds JR, Office of Regulatory Science US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740 USA; Windsor Amanda

Species substitution of brachyuran crabs in food products is an ongoing issue in the US resulting in the addition of blue and king crabs to the list of at-risk species by the Presidential Task Force on Illegal Unreported and Unregulated Fishing and Seafood Fraud in 2015. Recent DNA testing of retail Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 crabmeat "locally sourced" from Maryland and Virginia revealed DNA barcode matches to the western Pacific species Portunus (Monomia) pseudoargentatus Stephenson, 1961. This species is not generally regarded as commercially important, but is closely related to, or possibly synonymous with, Portunus haanii (Stimpson, 1858), a highly exploited species imported to the US as "Portunus haanii" or "red swimming crab." However, P. haanii has been synonymized under Portunus (Monomia) gladiator Fabricius, 1798, and is therefore not an appropriate name for commercial crabmeat. Analysis of additional DNA barcode sequences from cans of crabmeat labeled as "Portunus haanii" were also identified as P. pseudoargentatus. These three species comprise the Portunus gladiator complex, which we investigated with the aim to resolve the taxonomic status of each putative species and to confirm the identity of crabmeat imported into the United States as "Portunus haanii". We undertook a two-pronged approach utilizing independent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses to resolve the taxonomic status of the species in the P. gladiator complex. Pairwise comparisons of DNA barcodes generated from the taxonomic study to commercial products sold in the US as "Portunus haanii" were then used to identify the species present in those products.


P.95   Taxonomy DOES THE MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE AFFECT THE DISTRIBUTION OF ABYSSAL BENTHIC CRUSTACEANS ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN? Bober S., Center of Natural History (CeNak)- Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg, Germany; Brix-Elsig S., Senckenberg am Meer, German Centre of Marine Biodiversity Research (DZMB), c/o CeNak, Hamburg, Germany ; Riehl T., Department Marine Zoology, Crustacea, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Frankfurt, Germany; Schwentner M., Center of Natural History (CeNak)- Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg, Germany; Brandt A., Department Marine Zoology, Crustacea, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Frankfurt, Germany

A trans-Atlantic transect along the Vema Fracture Zone was sampled during the Vema-TRANSIT expedition in 2014/15. The aim of the cruise was to investigate whether the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) isolates the abyssal fauna of the western and eastern abyssal basins.
Based on two separately treated genetic datasets of Macrostylidae and Desmosomatidae/Nannoniscidae we learned that most of the species were found at only one side of the MAR. We analysed those species of Macrostylidae and Desmosomatidae that were sampled across the MAR and complemented these with a species of a third family, Munnopsidae. With these datasets we were further able to consider the effect of different niche adaptations: Macrostylidae are infaunal (burrowing), Munnopsidae are considered epifaunal with pronounced swimming capabilities and Desmosomatidae and Nannoniscidae are partly able to swim, but are not as well adapted to swimming as Munnopsidae. We concluded that the MAR seems to be a dispersal barrier for the non-swimming Macrostylidae and weakly-swimming Desmosomatidae and Nannoniscidae. However, four species of Macrostylidae and Desmosomatidae did cross the MAR, but evidence for regular unrestricted gene flow is still lacking. For the swimming Munnopsidae we were able to detect persistent gene flow across the MAR.


P.96   Taxonomy A NEW MESOSIGNUM SPECIES (CRUSTACEA: ISOPODA: MESOSIGNIDAE) FROM ABYSSAL BOTTOMS OF THE PUERTO RICO TRENCH. FRUTOS I.*, Zoological Museum, CeNak, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany; SORBE J.C., Station Marine, 33120 Arcachon, France

The family Mesosignidae was erected by Schultz (1969) to accommodate the genus Mesosignum Menzies, 1962. Later on, George (2003) assigned the fourteen known species into five genera: Bermudasignum, Costasignum, Japanosignum, Kurilosignum and Mesosignum. Currently, the genus Mesosignum comprises ten species (three of them undescribed). With an exclusive deep-sea distribution, Mesosignum species are mainly reported from the tropical latitudes of the eastern Pacific and Caribbean Atlantic, but also from Antarctic waters. Within the framework of the German multidisciplinary Vema-TRANSIT project on board of the new RV Sonne, the benthic macrofauna of the Puerto Rico Trench area (northwestern Atlantic) was sampled using a multinet camera-epibenthic sledge. Samplings were carried out in January 2015 at 6 stations located between 4552 and 8340 m depth. Within the isopod material collected, nine specimens (male, female and manca stages) were ascribed to a new species of the genus Mesosignum according to the following discriminating features: whole body with dorsal denticulations, anterolateral projections of pereonite 2 broadest at proximal end, lateral margins of pereonites and pleotelson with teeth, pleotelson with a pair of distolateral projections and rounded distal margin with 4–6 apical teeth, bearing a submarginal row of teeth on ventral side. The new species was recorded in one station at 4552 m depth. The world distribution of the currently 11 known species of Mesosignum is provided as well.


P.97   Taxonomy PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH OF THE MEXICAN FRESHWATER CRABS GENUS TEHUANA (DECAPODA: PESUDOTHELPHUSIDAE), USING MORPHOLOGIC AND GENETIC EVIDENCE. Moreno-Juarez E.G., Colección Nacional de Crustáceos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMX 04510 MX..; Villalobos-Hiriart J.L.

The freshwater crabs of the genus Tehuana include a group of eight species, which are distributed along the southeastern of Mexico through the states of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Tabasco and Chiapas. Morphologically are characterized by the presence of a first par male gonopods slender and cylindrical proximally and distally depressed; the main axis shows an evident conical meso-distal prominence as well as a medial constriction on the lateral surface; in addition, on the inner surface of the proximal lobe of the caudo-marginal projection, a strong and sharp carina protrudes. The morphology and distribution of each species of this genus has been well studied, but in areas with complexes geological histories and orographic conformations, the crabs populations present evident morphological variations among them and with the nominal species, which makes difficult its taxonomic determination. In this work two phylogenetic reconstructions, morphological and molecular, were carried out. The morphological analysis of parsimony in TNT, included somatic and reproductive (first male gonopod) characters. The molecular consisted of an analysis of Bayesian Inference in Mr. Bayes, analyzing three markers, two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and one nuclear (H3). In our results the genus Tehuana was retrieved as monophyletic group and sister of the genus Pseudothelphusa, with a strong statistical support, also there were found species that comprise complexes of forms, in the particular case of T. poglayenorum, the specimens of several localities were recovered as lineages independent of the nominal species.


P.98   Taxonomy SEARCHING THROUGH THE ABYSS – COMPARING ISOPOD FAMILY COMPOSITION FROM TWO DIFFERENT DEPTHS FROM NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN DEEP-SEA AREAS OFF THE EAST COAST OF AUSTRALIA. MERRIN K.L.*, Museums Victoria, G.P.O. Box 666, Melbourne, VIC 3001, AUSTRALIA; HUGHES L.E., Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW5 5BD, UNITED KINGDOM

The Isopoda are an important component of deep-sea ecosystems. One group, the Asellota, is the dominant sub-order found within the deep-sea (Brandt et al. 2004, 2007). Within Australian waters, our knowledge of deep-sea Asellota is just beginning (Poore 2002). During May to June 2017, scientists on the R.V. Investigator conducted the first deep-sea latitudinal sampling program along the abyssal regions of the east Australian coastline. Collections were made with a Brenke epibenthic sled at two depths, 2500 and 4000 metres, from 41.6°S in the Tasman Sea, Tasmania to 23.7°S, the northern terminus of the abyssal basin in the Coral Sea, Queensland. Here we compare the composition of isopod families collected from the southern abyssal region to that of the north. Preliminary sorting documents a rich fauna, with a high percentage new to science. We found that the Munnopsidae was one of the more prominent families in both regions, while other families such as the Nannoniscidae, Haplomunnidae and Thambematidae were represented only by a few individuals. The use of a Brenke sled along with dedicated on-board and post trip processing has provided a legacy of high quality research material.


P.99   Taxonomy DIVERSITY OF DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM STREAMS OF BRAZILIAN CERRADO, STATE OF MARANHÃO. ANDRADE K.S.P., Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil; ARAUJO M.S.L.C.*, Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil; NUNES J.L.S., Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil

The fauna of freshwater crustaceans is widely distributed in Brazil, being dominated by crabs of the family Trichodactylidae H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868 of the Palaemonidae family. The State of Maranhão does not have enough studies on freshwater crustaceans, thus, this is the first study to provide an update on the knowledge of the genus Macrobrachium and the family Trichodactylidae for the eastern region of Maranhão. Eight streams of the East of Maranhão were sampled with hand nets, sieves and trawl, passed in the bottom and submerged marginal vegetation for a period of 20 minutes in a stretch of 150m. A total of 526 specimens of shrimp were collected in five species: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) (N = 119), M. acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836) (N = 116), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) (N = 01), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877) (N = 235) and M. olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) (N = 55). We also registered 22 specimens of Trichodactylidae crabs, distributed in four genera and four species: Goyazana castelnaui (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (N = 6), Dilocarcinus septemdententatus (Herbst, 1783) (N = 11), Sylviocarcinus pictus H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (N = 3) and Valdivia serrata White, 1847 (N = 2). The species M. carcinus and M. olfersii were registered for the first time in the State, increasing the number of species of freshwater prawns in Maranhão, from four to six species. We have also developed an identification key of the genus Macrobrachium for the State.


P.100   Taxonomy FIRST LESSEPSIAN DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN IN THE TYRRHENIAN SEA. PIPITONE C.*, CNR-IAMC, Castellammare del Golfo, ITALY; VEGA FERNÁNDEZ T., Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, ITALY

The vast majority of lessepsian species i.e., those that enter the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal, remain confined to the eastern Mediterranean. Very few lessepsian immigrants have reached the western basin. Among decapods, the westernmost records come from northern Tunisia, which is exactly at the boundary between the western and eastern basins. Pilumnus minutus De Haan, 1835 is considered a lessepsian species. After its first Mediterranean record in 1933 (Egypt) it was reported only recently from the Aegean and Black Sea coasts of Turkey. The objective of this poster is to report recent findings of P. minutus from the western basin. Twelve individuals of P. minutus were found in samples of macrobenthic fauna collected with a suction sampler in 2005 on submerged artificial reefs made of concrete boulders in the Gulf of Castellammare (Sicily, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, western Mediterranean) at about 15 m depth. The distribution of P. minutus in the eastern Mediterranean follows the same diffusion pattern observed in many other lessepsian immigrants that is, from the Sinai area to the Aegean Sea. Our record is the first lessepsian decapod from the Tyrrhenian Sea and one among very few lessepsian species found in the western basin overall. The temporal gap between the first (1933) and the successive (2000) record of this crab in the eastern Mediterranean, as well as the spatial gap between those records and our Tyrrhenian record, are likely due to the fact that P. minutus may have been misidentified with autochthonous Pilumnus species.


P.101   Taxonomy FIRST INSIGHT INTO THE CUMACEA FAUNA FROM THE GULF OF GUINEA. STĘPIEŃ A*, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; MÜHLENHARDT-SIEGEL U, Centrum fur Naturkunde, Universitat Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; BŁAŻEWICZ M, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland

In November 2012 monitoring investigation off the cost of Ghana in the Gulf of Guinea, in the frame of the Ghanaian marine environmental monitoring programme was organized. Survey was made in cooperation with Institute of Marine Research in Bergen (Norway) on the RV Dr Fridtjof Nansen and resulted in obtain large collection of Cumacea. Cumacea are small, benthic crustacean, classified to Peracarida. Member of that group occur in almost all habitats, in wide depth range. Small sizes of Cumacea and sexual dimorphism makes difficulties in recognition and describing species. Currently, there are more than 1500 species known, however it is supposed that this number is highly underestimated. From the west-north part of Africa, 61 species has been described so far, but 1/3 of them was found deeper than 1000m. Material for the present investigation was collected from 146 station in depth range 50-1000m, from sandy and muddy bottom. Cumacea was represented by 211 specimens, that were classified to 71 morphospecies, 7 families and 12 genera. Family Bodotriinae was the most rich in genera (5 genera recognized); the most speciose genera was Diastylis (Diastylidae) with 8 morphospecies recognized. Most of the morphospecies were rare, their frequency of occurrence in samples being lower than 10%.


P.102   Taxonomy A NEW SPECIES OF WHALE LOUSE (CRUSTACEA: AMPHIPODA: CYAMIDAE) FOUND ON CUVIER´S BEAKED WHALE ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS. TANDBERG AHS*, University Museum, University of Bergen, PO Box 7800, NO-5020 Bergen, NORWAY; STOKKAN M, University Museum, University of Bergen, PO Box 7800, NO-5020 Bergen, NORWAY; WILLASSEN E, University Museum, University of Bergen, PO Box 7800, NO-5020 Bergen, NORWAY

Five specimens of Cyamidae were picked from the body of a recently deceased individual of Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier, 1823, which stranded in western Norway in early 2017. Autopsy of the whale revealed large quantities of waste plastic blocking its intestines and the observation triggered international media attention. We identified the cyamids to the genus Platycyamus Lütken, 1870 based on the gill-shape, the relatively similar sized gnathopods and separated peraeon segments. The new species differs particularly in characteristics of the legs from the North Atlantic Platycyamus thomsoni (Gosse, 1855), known to inhabit the bottlenose whale Hyperoodon ampullatus Forster, 1770, and from P. flaviscutatus Waller, 1989, known from Beardius bairdii Stejneger, 1883, in the Pacific. An about 1500 bp long sequence mitochondrial Cox 1, retrieved from three specimens showed no intraspecific variability. By comparing with other available data in GenBank we computed mean p-distances of 0.245 - 0.253 to sequences from Cyamus Latreille, 1796 and from Isocyamus Gervais & van Beneden, 1859, respectively. A Cox 1 gene tree using Caprellidae sequences as outgroup placed Platycyamus at the base of the Cyamidae, somewhat contrary to ideas about Cyamus being the most primitive of the group. A global haplotype network of Z. cavirostris based on CytB and 16S sequences placed the whale specimen as most closely related to individuals recorded around the Bahamas.


P.103   Taxonomy PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF AEGLA URUGUAYANA (ANOMURA, AEGLIDAE) REVEALS CRYPTIC DIVERSITY. ZIMMERMANN B.L., Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, BRAZIL; BUZATTO I., Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, BRAZIL; CRIVELLARO M.S., Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, BRAZIL; BARTHOLOMEI-SANTOS M.L., Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, BRAZIL; SANTOS S.*, Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, BRAZIL

Phylogeographic studies have revealed the presence of cryptic species in a variety of taxa, especially when morphological diagnostic characters are few and exhibit little variation among related species. This is the case of the freshwater crabs of genus Aegla. In this context, A. uruguayana is a species with one of the broadest distribution among the genus, occurring in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Besides that, populations of this species exhibit clinal variation in carapace shape, which can be amplified by the geographical isolation and the weak dispersal abilities of individuals. The aim of this study was to use phylogeographic methods to test the hypothesis that A. uruguayana encompasses a complex of cryptic species. Sixteen populations of A. uruguayana from Brazil were analyzed. Three molecular markers (one nuclear and two mitochondrial) were used for the construction of Bayesian phylogenies. According to our expectations, A. uruguayana represents an assemblage of cryptic species. Ten of the analyzed populations formed a well-supported clade together with previously sequenced specimens of A. uruguayana. However, individuals from five populations formed distinct clades, which did not cluster with any other previously described Aegla species. In addition, one population has some representatives that belong to A. uruguayana and others that correspond to a potential new species. Our results reinforce the fact that classical taxonomy does not provide clear-cut species resolution in Aegla. Thus, extensive molecular analysis is required to verify the actual number of species and to identify the potential cryptic diversity present in this threatened and peculiar genus.


P.104   Taxonomy FIRST MALE SPECIMEN OF SEA SPIDER PYCNOGONUM SPATIUM (PYCNOGONIDA: PYCNOGONIDAE) FROM THE GREEN ISLAND, TAIWAN. Lee Damin*, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; Chan Benny K.K., Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan; Kim Won, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

The sea spider genus Pycnogonum Brünnich, 1764 consists of 73 species which are characterized by thick and robust body, well developed proboscis, and absence of chelifore and palp. Pycnogonum is divided into the three subgenera based on the character states of the male oviger. In subgenus Pycnogonum, oviger has 8-9 segments with terminal claw; in subgenus Retroviger, oviger has 4-7 segments with or without terminal claw; in subgenus Nulloviger, oviger is absent. Pycnogonum spatium Takahashi, Dick & Mawatari, 2007 was described as a new species based on a female specimen collected by beam trawl at Amami Island, Kagoshima. One sea spider specimen was collected by SCUBA diving at Green Island, Taiwan. This specimen generally agrees with the description of P. spatium in terms of having a cylindrical proboscis with a flat lip, strong middorsal tubercles on the trunk, and wide intervals between the lateral processes. However in this specimen, oviger is absent and there is one small gonopore on ventrolateral coxa 2 of each 4th leg. In comparison with the female, the length of trunk body is shorter, and intervals between lateral processes are narrower. With these characteristics, we conclude that this specimen is the male Pycnogonum spatium and this species comes into the subgenus Nulloviger.


P.105   Taxonomy FIRST DATA OF TANAIDACEA FROM THE TIDAL CHANNELS OF THE GULF OF GABÈS (CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN SEA,TUNISIA) WITH THE DISCOVERY OF THREE NEW SPECIES. Fersi A., Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3038 TUNISIA; Esquete P.*, Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 PORTUGAL ; Neifar L., Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3038 TUNISIA; Dauvin J.C., Laboratoire Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière, Normandie Univ, 14000 Caen, FRANCE; Esquete Patricia

The distribution and abundance of Tanaidacea were studied for the first time in the tidal channels of the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia). Samples we taken at 26 sites during four seasons (spring, summer, winter and autumn) from March 2016 to January 2017. Each sample consisted in four replicates of a 0.1 m² Van Veen grab (total 0.4 m²). A total of 2,896 individuals of eight species of Tanaidacea were identified. Apseudopsis was the most diversified genus with four species: two new species were discovered and a new record of Apseudopsis ostroumovi; until new only in the Black Sea was recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. Apseudes was the second most diversified genus with three species. The species richness and abundances were higher in winter than during the other seasons. The Tanaidacea structure was linked to the location of the channels in the Gulf of Gabès. High abundances were recorded in the most polluted channel near an emissary of phosphogypsum. This highlights that these species were very resistant and tolerated pollution. Moreover, some malformation anomalies were recorded in Apseudopsis individuals in this high polluted channel.


P.106   Taxonomy NESTED DISTRIBUTION OF THE PERACARIDA OF BERNARDO O’HIGGINS NATIONAL PARK (S CHILE) CHANNELS AND FJORDS. . Esquete Patricia*, Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 PORTUGAL; Aldea Cristian, Facultad de Ciencias & Instituto de la Patagonia. 01855, Punta Arenas CHILE

The Crustacea Peracarida is of the most diverse and abundant taxa in benthic ecosystems, and a potential tool for marine biogeography hypothesis testing due to the absence of dispersive phase together with a variety of displacement capacities. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the biodiversity and distribution patterns of the Peracarida is still scarce in many areas of the ocean world. On the other hand, Bernardo O’Higgins National Park (BONP), located in the Chilean Channels and Fjords ecoregion is an area of very unique, fragmented ecosystems that offers an excellent opportunity for the study of the distribution patterns of the faunas in habitats with environmental gradients. With the aim of studying the biodiversity and distribution patterns of the benthic communities in BONP, 20 sites were sampled by scuba divers at 5 and 15 m depth by scrapping quadrats of 25x25cm. A total of 561 individuals belonging to 60 peracarid nominal taxa were identified, with a high proportion (30%) of singletons. The most ubiquitous species was the isopod Exosphaeroma gigas, whereas the most abundant were two undescribed species of amphipods, Paramoera sp1 and Polycheira sp1. These results revealed a nested distribution pattern within the channels (T=20.762º; p<0.01), on which the faunas of the sites located at the innermost part or the channels appear as a subset of those at the outer sites.


P.107   Taxonomy RAPID COLONIZATION AND HISTORICAL INTRODUCTIONS? - FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE BIOGEOGRAPHY OF PALAEMON VARIANS IN THE BALTIC SEA. Geburzi J.C.*, Zoological Museum, Kiel University, D-24105 Kiel, Germany; Meenke H., Zoological Museum, Kiel University, D-24105 Kiel, Germany; Ewers-Saucedo C., Zoological Museum, Kiel University, D-24105 Kiel, Germany; Brandis D., Zoological Museum, Kiel University, D-24105 Kiel, Germany

The ditch shrimp Palaemon varians (Leach, 1814) inhabits brackish coastal waters and estuaries along European coasts. In the Baltic Sea, it occurs only in fjords, separated bights and lagoons, but is absent from the open sea, resulting in a rather disjunct distribution. Little is known about the biogeography of P. varians in the Baltic Sea, and it has been debated whether its colonization is the result of a recent natural range expansion or an introduction. To investigate the population structure and colonization history of P. varians in the Baltic Sea, we sampled six populations along the southwestern Baltic Sea coast and compared them to specimen from the neighbouring southeastern North Sea on the basis of a 538bp fragment of the COI gene. The results revealed a clear separation between the North and Baltic Sea populations with haplotypes unique for each basin, and a lower genetic diversity in the Baltic Sea (2 haplotypes) compared to the North Sea (7 haplotypes). This result points in fact to a rather rapid colonization of the Baltic Sea. Curiously, we detected a single haplotype that was shared between the island of Sylt (North Sea) and the Schlei Fjord (Baltic Sea). These two sites are not directly connected by water, but were both trading places in medieval times, connected by a short overland route. We therefore hypothesize an additional historical introduction of P. varians into the Baltic Sea.


P.108   Taxonomy FIRST RECORD OF SIX SPECIES OF MANTIS SHRIMP FROM KOREA (CRUSTACEA: STOMATOPODA). HWANG H.S*, School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea; AHYONG S, Australian Museum, 1 William Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia, and School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia; KIM W, School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea

Stomatopods or mantis shrimps are predatory crustaceans found mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. More than 480 stomatopod species have been described worldwide (Ahyong 2001, 2004), of which only seven species have been recorded in Korean waters. We performed taxonomic research on a series of stomatopods collected by SCUBA diving and commercial fishing trawlers from the coastal waters of Korea. As a result of this study, thirteen species of stomatopods are now recorded in the Korean fauna. Six are first reported from Korean waters. Among them, four belong to the superfamily Squilloidea Latreille, 1802 (Levisquilla inermis (Manning, 1966), Anchisquilla fasciata (De Haan, 1844), Cloridopsis scorpio (Latreille, 1828), Miyakella nepa (Latreille in Latreille, Le Peletier, Serville & Guérin, 1828)) and two belong to the Lysiosquilloidea Giesbrecht, 1910, one each in Tetrasquillidae Manning & Camp, 1993 (Acaenosquilla latifrons (de Haan, 1844)) and Nannosquillidae Manning, 1980 (Acanthosquilla multifasciata (Wood-Mason, 1895)). Through the present study, the superfamily Lysiosquilloidea is reported for the first time from Korean waters. A checklist of the thirteen species of Korean stomatopods is provided with photographs.


P.109   Taxonomy THE TANAIDACEA OF THE IBERIAN MARGIN AND ADJACENT ABYSSAL PLAINS: DIVERSITY AND CONNECTIONS. Esquete P., Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 PORTUGAL; Garcia-Herrero A., Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 PORTUGAL ; Cunha M.R., Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 PORTUGAL

Amongst the Peracarida, the Tanaidacea is perhaps most sedentary order; Tanaidacean species are known to live in tubes and/or buried in the sediment, with no or little swimming capacity. This condition, together with the absence of a larval dispersive phase, lead to a tendency to local speciation and endemicity. On the other hand, the continental margins of the Iberian Peninsula host a variety of geomorphological oceanographic settings: bottom currents run from the Mediterranean Sea and the north Atlantic, passing by cold seeps, submarine canyons, coral mounds and other structures resulting in a remarkable habitat diversity. In this work, we compiled all the georeferenced records of Tanaidaceans corresponding to the Iberian continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains (48.57⁰–32.22⁰N, 14.436⁰W¬–5.77⁰E; 210-4800m depth) available from the literature, OBIS datasets (total: 122 records) and identifications of the biological collection of the Biology Department of the University of Aveiro, coming from 13 oceanographic cruises carried out between 2000 and 2014 in the framework of different international projects (855 records). Biogeographical analyses were performed with QGIS and VNDM/NDM software. There are significant differences regarding the amount of data at different areas: there is no data at the Galician Bank, or Mediterranean margin north to Alboran sea; The eastern area of the gulf of Cadiz called “El Arraiche” showed the highest endemicity values, but also the majority of the records; A significant percentage of species are shared between El Arraiche and Alboran, and also between the Portuguese and Cantabric margins.


P.110   Taxonomy PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND COMPARTIVE MORPHOLOGY AMONG THE SPIDER CRABS LIBINIA LEACH, 1815 (MAJOIDEA: EPIALTIDAE). Tamburus A.F., Department of Biology, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil; Mantelatto F.L.*, Department of Biology, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil; MANTELATTO FERNANDO

The spider crab genus Libinia contains 10 valid species that occur only in the American continent in mud bottoms on variable depths. There are distinct phylogenetic hypothesis that include Libinia with different sister groups (Herbstia, Leucippa, Notolopas, Pisa, Rochinia, Taliepus), which belong to the superfamily Majoidea, but relationships of the genus are not solved. Two groups of species (Libinia ferreirae and L. spinosa in Brazilian coast / Libinia dubia, L. emarginata and L. erinacea in Gulf of Mexico) share similar habitat, depths and morphological similarities that made the identification difficult, especially of smaller specimens, justifying a comparative study of them. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship among the species of the genus and clarify the taxonomic position of those two groups. We analyzed the morphology through the comparison of adult and young specimens using new characters and others already used before. A phylogenetic tree was built from fragment of mitochondrial DNA sequences (16S and COI) by the maximum likelihood method. The taxonomic position of Brazilian and Gulf of Mexico species was solved with consistent characteristic that define them. The phylogenetic tree supported Libinia as a monophyletic clade positioned as a sister group of a clade composed by (Stratiolibinia + (Notolopas + Herbstia)), and the relationship with Notolopas and Herbstia support previous phylogenetic proposals made for the superfamily, while the addition of Stratiolibinia is a contribution of the present study Financial support: BIOTA-FAPESP – Proc. 2010/50188-8; Ciências do Mar II - Proc. 2005/2014 - 23038.004308/201414; CNPq – Proc. 142082/2015-5; 304968/2014-5


P.111   Taxonomy SPECIES OF PORCELLANID CRABS FROM THE NORTHERN SOUTH CHINA SEA. DONG D.*, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; LI X.

The diversity of porcelain crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae) is high in the subtropical regions of the West Pacific. We examined hundreds of porcellanid specimens deposited in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences and materials recently collected from waters of northern coast of the South China Sea (China mainland). The collections contain 40 species belonging to 10 genera. Among them, 3 species of the genus Polyonyx Stimpson, 1858 were found new to science, and 3 species of the same genus were firstly discovered in the South China Sea. The three new species were observed living within sponges, polychaete tubes and coral reefs, respectively, demonstrating the wide adaptability of this genus to the commensal habitats in this area.


P.112   Taxonomy NEW RECORDS OF CARIDEAN SHRIMPS (CRUSTACEA DECAPODA CARIDEA) FROM CHINA SEAS. Gan Z.*, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; LI X.

Four species of caridean shrimps collected from the East China Sea and South China Sea represent new records for the Chinese waters: Lysmata kempi Chace, 1997; Lysmata lipkei Okuno & Fiedler, 2010; Chlorocurtis jactans (Nobili, 1904) and Rhynchocinetes conspiciocellus Okuno & Takeda, 1992. The diagnostic characters and illustrations of these four species are presented, with remarks on their taxonomy. The identification keys of these species from Chinese waters are provided.


P.113   Taxonomy DEEPWATER SHRIMP OF THE SOUTHERN GULF OF MEXICO . GRACIA A*, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, México City 04510 México; VÁZQUEZ-BADER A.R., Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, México City 04510 México

A systematic study along the Mexican continental slope (300-1200 m depth) of the Gulf of Mexico (Tamaulipas-Yucatán) was conducted on board the R/V JUSTO SIERRA of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, to study crustacean biodiversity and potential fishery resources. The benthic fauna was sampled day and night using a semi-commercial shrimp trawling net with a 18 m mouth and 4.5 cm mesh. Thirteen species of deepwater shrimp of the families Aristeidae, Benthecisymidae, Solenoceridae and Penaeidae were found. Most abundant large size deepwater shrimp species in almost 200 hauls were Giant red shrimp Aristaemorpha foliacea, Scarlet shrimp Aristeopsis edwardsiana and Royal red shrimp Pleoticus robustus that together represented 90 % of the total catch. Other like Aristeus antillensis, Penaeopsis serrata and Parapenaeus politus were less abundant with minor size. Higher catches were consistently found in the 300-700 m depth range. Mean biomass and catch per unit effort registered values were 609 + 832 g/ha and 2.5 + 3.3. kg/h. CPUE reached values as high as 16 kg/h, which are in the range registered in several deepwater shrimp fisheries in the world. An area of 60,000 km2 was estimated where potential fishing grounds can be located. Shrimp abundance and value could be attractive enough for developing a deepwater shrimp fishery which can cause an impact on the fragile deepwater benthic ecosystem. The eventual utilization of deepwater shrimp must consider a sound fishery plan to assure sustainable exploitation while minimizing impacts on the fragile deep-sea ecosystem.


P.114   Taxonomy A NEW FAMILY OF TANAIDACEA (TANAIDOMORPHA) FROM THE DEEP-SEA. BŁAŻEWICZ M.*, University of Łódź, Department of Polar Biology and Oceanobiology, Łódź, Poland; JÓŹWIAK P., University of Łódź, Department of Polar Biology and Oceanobiology, Łódź, Poland; FRUTOS I., University of Hamburg, Centre of Natural History (CeNak), Zoological Museum, Hamburg, Germany

Although there have been years of intensive studies focused on better understanding the systematics of the Tanaidomorpha, it is still not fully resolved. This problem is compounded by a high number of species and genera which are described every year and high morphological inter- and infra-specific plasticity. As a consequence, twenty-seven genera and 54 species (6% of members of suborder Tanaidomorpha) remain unclassified to any currently defined family (family incertae sedis). During examination of Tanaidacea from various deep-sea collections from slope and/or abyssal regions of the Atlantic, SE Australia, and NW and Central Pacific, a series of distinct, but similar specimens were discovered and classified to seven new species: six of them to the genus Paranarthrurella Lang 1971 and one to the genus Armatognathia Kudinova-Pasternak 1987. Both genera are currently without family classification, but are considered to be closely related. Morphological analysis compared against molecular results based on the two markers (COI and 18S) revealed that Paranarthrurella and Armatognathia should be considered a new tanaidomorphan family.


P.115   Late Breaking Works NEW GENUS OR JUST NEW SPECIES? Sung-Hyun Kim, Department of Biological Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116 KOREA; Yong-Gil Lee, Department of Biological Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116 KOREA; Young-Hyo Kim, Department of Biological Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116 KOREA

The purpose of this study is to raise the biodiversity of Korea by reporting new species though the collection of Cumacea. Specimens were collected mainly with a light-trap from the shallow coastal waters of Korea during 1994–2012. As a result, three new species belonging to the family Bodotriidae were collected from Korean waters. These three new species probably belong in the genus Bodotria (subfamily Bodotriinae) and the characteristics are as follows: carapace often with lateral carina; pereonite 1 fused to carapace and invisible in lateral view; exopods only on the first pair of pereopods; pereopod 2 without distinct ischium; uropod, endopod uniarticulate or biarticulate. However, major differences were also found between our three new species and the genus Bodotria: pereopod 5 absent; uropodal peduncle shorter than species of the genus Bodotria. Especially, Bodotria n. sp. 1, pereopod 1 very long and with 9 long setae in propodus. In hence, the three new species possibly belong to a new genus in subfamily Bodotriinae.


P.116   Late Breaking Works PHYLOGENY AND DIVERGENCE TIMES OF LAKE BAIKAL AND SUBTERRANEAN CANDONIDAE OSTRACOD LINEAGES. Karanovic I.*, Department of Life Science, Hanyang Univeristy; Sitnikova T. Ya, Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences

The family Candonidae is one of the most diverse freshwater ostracod groups in terms of number of taxa and ecological adaptations. They are a significant component of the Lake Baikal ostracod fauna and a predominant one in subterranean waters around the world, with many short-range endemics. All candonid lineages have representatives in subterranean waters, and five out of eight tribes exclusively inhabit these ecosystems. In Lake Baikal, 104 described species show an unprecedented morphological diversity, but they are classified into only three genera, one of them endemic to the lake. Competing hypotheses about the origin of highly disjunct subterranean lineages received some attention in morphology-based cladistic studies. However, phylogenetic relationships of candonid tribes and genera have not yet been tested using molecular markers. We reconstruct their phylogeny based on 16S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs, using Bayesian inference methods. Exploiting a rich ostracod fossil record for molecular divergence time estimates, we use four taxa to calibrate the root and three internal nodes. The resulting trees show an incongruence between molecular and fossil divergence time estimates, with the former suggesting older ages. Baikal candonids have a close phylogenetic relationship with Palearctic clades, but their deep divergence is indicative of separate genera. Our results also suggest a monophyly of tribes that today live exclusively in subterranean waters, and we offer several hypotheses of their evolutionary history. Broader implications of this study are some or all of the following: missing fossil record, inadequate systematics, problematic molecular dating, and marine origin of subterranean lineages.


P.117   Late Breaking Works TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL TRENDS IN THE REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF BLUE SWIMMER CRABS IN TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL ENVIRONMENTS IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA. Johnston D.J*, Western Australian Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development; Marks R, Western Australian Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development; Hesp A, Western Australian Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development; de Lestang S, Western Australian Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development; Caputi N, Primary Industries and Regional Development; Chandrapavan A, Primary Industries and Regional Development

Over the past two decades, several blue swimmer crab stocks in Western Australia have experienced marked declines, resulting in extended periods of closure for the two largest crab fisheries. Whilst one of these fisheries (Shark Bay) has essentially recovered, the other (Cockburn Sound) has not, despite now being closed for four years. Though not fully understood, the marked declines in both these stocks were attributed to high fishing pressure and environmental factors, including the effects of an extreme marine heat wave event in 2010/11. The need to understand why not all crab stocks have recovered, despite receiving full protection, and help facilitate robust management into the future based on reliable scientific advice, has prompted a detailed re-investigation of the biology of crab stocks in the State. This talk details results from recent reproductive studies, comparing key reproductive variables (size at maturity, batch fecundity, timing and duration of spawning, and amount of spawning activity (i.e. proportions of berried females) over time of stocks in different environments, including in temperate and subtropical waters. The marked changes in abundance of crab stocks in Western Australia over recent years, and accompanying data sets, provide an ideal basis for exploring the extent to which changes in abundance are accompanied with changes in reproductive biology. Attention is also given towards improvements we have made in the analysis of reproductive data for blue swimmer crabs in Western Australia.


P.118   Late Breaking Works BEST PRACTICES FOR DEPOSITING VOUCHER AND TYPE MATERIAL IN MUSEUM COLLECTIONS. REED K.J., Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology; AHLFELD K. *, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology; MOSER W., Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

The Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology routinely accepts, catalogs, and curates designated voucher and type specimens from all extant invertebrate taxa (except foraminifera, insects, myriapods and non-marine chelicerates). Due to modern shipping and permitting issues, we strongly encourage prospective donors to adhere to our best practices in the following areas: Notification, Specimen Curation and Documentation. Notification: Before you ship specimens, please contact the curator in charge of the collection (a list of collections and responsible curators is available at http://invertebrates.si.edu/) or the collection manager. If you wish to donate a large collection, be aware that the acquisition will need to be approved by the IZ Collection Committee and may require additional review time. Please do not send manuscript type specimens until your manuscript has been accepted for publication. Finally, do not ship any specimens for deposit until you have received departmental approval. Specimen Curation: Specimens sent for catalog numbers must be clearly separated, sorted, labeled with taxa and locality data, and housed in appropriate storage containers. In addition to the data on the label, please provide appropriate specimen and locality data in a spreadsheet. Documentation: To expedite processing time, please provide a signed Deed of Gift form or gift letter and copies of all relevant permits. We will not accept specimens collected in violation of international, local, state or Federal regulations or in violation of the Lacey Act or the Endangered Species Act.


P.119   Late Breaking Works EXPLORING THE MICROBIOME OF CALLINECTES SAPIDUS (MARYLAND BLUE CRAB). Ramachandran P*, Office of Regulatory Science US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740 USA; Reed E; Windsor AM; Ottensen A

The Atlantic Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) is a revered part of the diet of Marylanders and non-Marylanders alike. Describing the microbiome of this popular species provides valuable information to better understand health risks for crab aquaculture and also risks to consumers from handling or consuming inadequately cooked parts. The shotgun metagenomic data presented here provide culture-independent and PCR-bias free insight into the native microbiome and distinct groupings of microbial taxa associated with different body regions. Crab parts used for this study were categorized as legs, claws, meat, and viscera. Each part was homogenized and DNA was extracted using the Qiagen DNEasy Blood and Tissue kit prior to Nextera XT library preparation. For culture dependent description, crab parts were incubated at 37ºC in mBPW broth for 24 hours prior to DNA extraction. Libraries were sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq 550 and data were analyzed using Cosmos ID bioinformatic pipelines. The data supported previous work describing a core Proteobacteria community; in this case comprised of Vibrio, Shewanella, Ralstonia and Pseudoalteromonas. Interestingly, Alivibrio was associated only with the viscera, Exiguobacterium was absent only from the viscera, and Citrobacter was unique to meat. Surprisingly, the claws and meat were more diverse than the viscera, hosting Psychrobacter spp, Propionibacterium, Shewanella, Exiguobacetrium, Providencia, Ralstonia, Proteus, Clostridium, Pseudoalteromonas, Lysinibacillus, Enterococcus, and Vibrio. Uncultured crabs were dominated by Psychrobacter and Propionibacterium, while cultured parts were dominated by Shewanella, Exiguobacetrium, and Vibrio. The cultured crab microbiota also supported the growth of Exiguobacterium, Lysinibacillus, Shewanella and Enterococcus. Incidence of Vibrio spp. was significant in all cultured parts except for claws. Phage elements also provided interesting contrasting signatures between cultured and uncultured crab parts. Uncultured crabs were dominated by Psychrobacter phages and Hop trefoil cryptic virus and cultured crabs were dominated by Lactococus, Vibrio and Enterobacteria phages.


P.120   Late Breaking Works Evidence of contamination in Ucides cordatus at a southern Brazil mangrove. Baptista-Metri C.*, Colegiado de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual do Paraná, Rua Comendador Correia Junior, 117, CEP 83203-280, Paranaguá, Brazil; Costa-Junior F. M., Curso de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual do Paraná, Rua Comendador Correia Junior, 117, CEP 83203-280, Paranaguá, Brazil; Roveda L. F., Colegiado de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual do Paraná, Rua Comendador Correia Junior, 117, CEP 83203-280, Paranaguá, Brazil; Metri R., Colegiado de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual do Paraná, Rua Comendador Correia Junior, 117, CEP 83203-280, Paranaguá, Brazil

Landing crabs as Ucides cordatus are important socioeconomic in Brazil, and their populations are being affected by the environmental impact caused by the contamination of mangroves. The present study aims to evaluate the population and the presence of contaminants determined by metallic ions in a southern estuary of Brazil. Samples were taken in 3 mangroves at different antropogenic influence in Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil: Palmito State Forest (formally conserved), Rio da Vila (polluted), and Rio Pequeno (recently formally conserved). For 40 individuals we measured: carapace width, length and height, abdomen width and length, height and thickness of the larger chaela, and wet weight. The concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb e Zn was obtained by ICP-AES. The mean size of the males presented differences between mangroves (FLC = 69.7 mm for Palmito State Forest individuals, 69.5 mm for Rio da Vila and 70.6 mm for Rio Pequeno; FP = 150,6 g for Palmito State Forest, 155,6 g for Rio da Vila and 155,3 g). The weight and width of carapace ratio obtained were also different for the mangroves indicating isometric growth for specimens from Palmito State Forest and from Rio Pequeno, and allometric negative for the Rio da Vila. Concentrations of chromium and zinc have exceeded the limits allowed by legislation, and must be affecting the crabs fitness. This work demonstrates the need to study the characteristics of the uçá crab population, to evaluate the quality and development of mangroves, since it has an important role for society.


P.121   Late Breaking Works Instant taxonomy: Choosing adequate characters for species delimitation and description through congruence between molecular data and quantitative shape analysis. KARANOVIC T.*, Hanyang University, Department of Natural Sciences, Seoul 04763, South Korea; LEE S., Hanyang University, Department of Natural Sciences, Seoul 04763, South Korea; LEE W., Hanyang University, Department of Natural Sciences, Seoul 04763, South Korea

The lack of university funding is one of major impediments to taxonomy, partly because traditional taxonomic training takes longer than a PhD course. Understanding ranges of phenotypic variability for different morphological structures, and their use as characters for delimitation and description of taxa, is a tedious task. We argue that the advent of molecular barcoding and quantitative shape analysis make it unnecessary. As an example, we tackle a problematic species-complex of marine copepods from Korea and Japan, approaching it in a way that a starting taxonomist might do. Samples were collected from 14 locations and the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced from 42 specimens. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal four distinct clades in Korea and Japan, and additional nine belonging to a closely related complex from other parts of the Northern Pacific. Twenty different morphological structures were analysed for one Japanese and two Korean clades using landmark-based two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Although there is no single morphological character that can distinguish with absolute certainty all three cryptic species, most show statistically significant interspecific differences in shape and size. We use five of them to describe two new species from Korea, and to redescribe Tigriopus japonicus Mori, 1938 from near its type locality.


P.122   Late Breaking Works ELUCIDATING THE PRESENCE AND EXPRESSION OF THE CRUSTACEAN HYPERGLYCEMIC HORMONE OF THE RED DEEP-SEA CRAB, CHACEON QUINQUEDENS. Green S.R., Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Baltimore, MD 21202 USA; Chung J.S., Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Baltimore, MD 21202 USA

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a member of CHH superfamily in decapod crustaceans, is known as multiple functioning hormone. To date, over >100 CHH sequences are known, while little has been known about the CHH from deep-sea cold-water crustacean species. The fishery of the red deep-sea, Chaceon quinquedens, a data-poor species is currently federally managed in the US. We aimed to understand if crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the red deep-sea crab, Chaceon quinquedens play a role in female reproduction. We first isolated the full-length cDNA of CHH sequence using PCR with degenerate primers and 5'/3' RACE and then measured the levels of CHH in the sinus gland and its expression in the eyestalk ganglia of females. As expected two forms of CHH are found in the sinus gland by RP-HPLC combined with a dot blot assay (CHH1 and CHH2): with a ratio of CHH1:2 at 1:4. The full-length cDNA sequence for CHH (ChqCHH; 957 bp) obtained using a degenerate PCR combined with 5' and 3' RACE includes 5' UTR 360 bp, ORF 420 bp, and 3' UTR 177 bp. The ORF translates to a signal peptide, CHH precursor relate-peptide, dibasic cleavage site and 73 aa mature hormone, an amidation site and tribasic cleavage site. The putative amino acid sequence of ChqCHH is most closely related to Cancer productus CHH IIb isoform. The levels of ChqCHH in the sinus gland and its expression in the eyestalk ganglia are elevated in the females at early vitellogenic stages, implying its function in early vitellogenesis.




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