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Crustacean Jambalaya II

Room: Ripley Center, Lecture Hall

15:30 - 17:00

Chair(s): Christopher Tudge

WPM-9.2  15:30  HOW COMMON ARE ISOPOD PARASITES IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS THROUGHOUT THE MESO-CENOZOIC? KLOMPMAKER A.A.*, Department of Integrative Biology & Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, 1005 Valley Life Sciences Building #3140, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; ROBINS C.M., Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, 1101 Valley Life Science Building, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; FRAAIJE R.H.B., Oertijdmuseum, Bosscheweg 80, 5283 WB, Boxtel, THE NETHERLANDS; PORTELL R.W., Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; DE ANGELI A., Museo Civico “G. Zannato”, Piazza Marconi 15, 36075 Montecchio Maggiore (VI), ITALY

Parasites substantially influence the structure of modern marine ecosystems, but the prevalence, diversity, and importance of parasitism throughout the Phanerozoic is poorly known. The best-known record of parasites in fossil crustaceans is evidence attributed to epicaridean isopods found in decapods. Such parasites can have dramatic effects on the host, including castration. Although these soft-bodied isopods do not fossilize, their swellings (ichnotaxon Kanthyloma crusta) are readily visible in the gill chamber region on dorsal carapaces of fossil decapods. Here we test the hypothesis that the prevalence of isopod infestations decreased through time by studying >5000 specimens from 13 Late Jurassic – Miocene assemblages from Europe and North America. Infestation percentages are significantly higher for Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous species occurrences relative to those from the Late Cretaceous – Miocene interval. Decreases are also evident using genus-level occurrences and whole assemblages, supporting earlier notions based on less refined methods. This decline cannot be explained by collecting and preservational factors. Instead, this trend may, in part, be explained by a drop in the abundance of commonly infested primitive lineages such as homolodromioid brachyurans and galatheoid squat lobsters, among other factors. Possibly, parasitism contributed to the decline of these clades. This macroevolutionary trend adds to the rapidly increasing knowledge about the importance of parasitism in deep time and opens the door for new studies.

WPM-9.4  15:45  THE LARGE BRANCHIOPODS OF NEW CALEDONIA. RABET N.*, UMR 7208 BOREA, Sorbonne Universités, MNHN, UCN, UA, CNRS, IRD, CP26 75231, 43 rue Cuvier, 75005, Paris Cedex 05, France; TIMMS B., Honorary Research Associate, Australian Museum, 6-9 College St., Sydney, 2000, NSW; CHARPIN N., Vies d'Ô douce, Résidence LE FLORE, Apt 405, 14 rue du docteur Guegan, 98800 Nouméa, France/Nouvelle-Calédonie; BONILLO C., UMS 2700 OMSI, MNHN, CP26 75231, 43 rue Cuvier, 75005, Paris Cedex

New Caledonia is known for high faunistic ​and floristic endemism. Only two large branchiopods species were previously known from this island before the "La Planète Revisitée" expeditions: " Triops longicaudatus intermedius Longhurst 1955" and Lynceus insularis Olesen et al. 1996. We present the methods and results of our surveys, which used satellite technology and specific focused investigations based on local conditions. We conducted direct sampling of adult animals and sampled dry sediments for for resting eggs. Representative specimens were sequenced using NGS methods. This method allowed us to identify five species all with a strong Australian affinity. Two species are geographically limited, are probably endemic, and are affected by mining or agricultural activities. Two species are more widely distributed and do not seem threatened. The last species inhabits all areas including mining zones and presents a clear genetic structure suggesting the beginning of a radiation phase. The latter is threatened locally by urbanization and mining activity.

WPM-9.5  16:00  A FISHERY IN FLUX: CLAW REMOVAL AND ITS IMPACTS ON SURVIVAL, BEHAVIOR, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS IN THE JONAH CRAB (CANCER BOREALIS). GOLDSTEIN J.S.*, Maine Coastal Ecology Center, Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, 342 Laudholm Farm Road, Wells, ME 04090 USA; CARLONI J., New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, 225 Main Street, Durham, NH 03824 USA; KIBLER R.D., Department of Computer Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH 03824 USA

Found in coastal and shelf waters along the Atlantic coast of North America, from Newfoundland to Florida, Jonah crab (Cancer borealis) have been captured as incidental bycatch in the New England lobster industry for over 80 years. In the last 20 years however, Jonah crabs have become an alternative fishery target and landings have more than quadrupled. This has necessitated evaluation of the current status and prospective long-term health of the fishery. The biological implications of harvesting Jonah crab through the live removal of claws remain mostly unknown. The goal of this ongoing research is to evaluate current harvest practices (claw removal) and the implications on the health and behavior of Jonah crabs. Preliminary results from laboratory trials (n = 232 total crabs) suggest that double-claw removal incurs markedly more mortality (~74 %) compared with single-claw removal (~56 %) and control animals (~19 %). Physiological stress, assessed through concurrent haemolymph analyses suggest elevated levels of glucose and lactate in de-clawed crabs. Continued studies on behavior (feeding) and growth are ongoing in an effort to better understand Jonah crabs and manage this rapidly developing fishery in New England waters.

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