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     # - ASSESSING WETLAND ECOSYSTEM CONDITION THROUGH ENERGY-BASED INDICES Reiss KC*, HT Odum Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, 100 Phelps Lab, Museum Rd. Gainesville, FL 32611-6350 USA ; Brown MT, HT Odum Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, 100 Phelps Lab, Museum Rd. Gainesville, FL 32611-6350 USA

    Abstract: An index of Landscape Development Intensity (LDI), based on nonrenewable areal empower density of land uses, has been used as a human disturbance gradient in developing wetland bio-indicators of ecosystem health and in developing a Stream Condition Index. Recently the LDI was tested as an indicator of human disturbance against a large wetland data set in Ohio. Here we propose a new method for calculating the LDI of a landscape unit based on a log10 scale of the ratio of the nonrenewable areal empower density of the landscape unit to an areal empower density of the environmental baseline, or average renewable areal empower density, of the landscape unit. In addition, we propose a spatial averaged LDI for point source pollutants, especially those associated with pollutants such as nutrients, metals, and other toxins. In general, metals, nutrients, and toxins have high Unit Emergy Values (UEVs) and as a result, when excess concentrations occur, they are capable of instigating significant changes in ecosystem processes, which often result in declines in ecosystem health. While the LDI has had several rounds of development and evaluation, the Pollutant Density Index (PDI) and Pollutant Empower Density (PED) indices are new concepts which require thorough vetting. The indices presented are our attempt to relate impacts for two general sources to potential alteration in ecosystem structure and function, which might collectively be termed ecosystem health. Much research is needed to further develop these concepts and gather empirical evidence required to fully examine the theory.

     #0 - EVALUATION OF THE PHYSICAL-BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAGOON LAS SALINAS IN GUERRERO, MEXICO. Infante Mata D. *, Instituto de Ecología A.C. Departamento de Ecología Funcional, km 2.5 Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351 El Haya, Xalapa, VER 91070 MEX ; Madero Vega C., Instituto de Ecología A.C. Departamento de Ecología Funcional, km 2.5 Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351 El Haya, Xalapa, VER 91070 MEX; Rivera Guzmán N., Instituto de Ecología A.C. Departamento de Ecología Funcional, km 2.5 Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351 El Haya, Xalapa, VER 91070 MEX; Sánchez Higueredo L., Instituto de Ecología A.C. Departamento de Ecología Funcional, km 2.5 Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351 El Haya, Xalapa, VER 91070 MEX; Acosta Rosado I., Instituto de Ecología A.C. km 2.5 Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351 El Haya, Xalapa, VER 91070 MEX; Monroy Ibarra R., Instituto de Ecología A.C. km 2.5 Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351 El Haya, Xalapa, VER 91070 MEX

    Abstract: Las Salinas lagoon which is adjacent to the Pacific Ocean has an annual average temperature of 24.8 ºC, a mean precipitation of 983.6 mm and an evaporation of 1613 mm. The water covers around 20 hectares and 11 hectares are covered by mangrove. The lagoon presents temporary flooding and a very marked drought period. To describe its dynamic we conductes an evaluation of the physiochemical parameters (temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity) of the superficial, interstitial and underground water. The salinity was 37.8 and 9.6 ups for the underground and superficial water respectively. The flooding level was -77 cm during the dry season and 15 cm above the soil during the rainy season. The redox potential varied within a range of 330 mV to -50 mV, with the highest values registered during the dry season. The water analyses showed an absence of heavy metals. Concentrations of total nitrogen and orthophosphates were lower than 0.05 mgL-1; BDO5 was 6.82 mgL-1, and chlorophyll 7.28 mgm-3. The primary productivity was 98.39 mgCm-3hr-1. The mangrove is dominated by Conocarpus erectus, the herbs Batis maritima, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Panicum spp., Heliotropium curassavicum and the marine grass Ruppia maritima. In the less flooded sites, the mangrove community is mixed with the tropical dry forest, dominated mainly by Prosopis laevigata. The results of this study conform the base line for the conservation of the lagoon dynamics. The lagoon is in an acceptable state of conservation which allows the preservation of its environmental services.

     #0 - WETLANDS VIEWED THROUGH YEARS 2, 5 AND 10, BUT WHAT HAPPENS THEN? Ferlow D*, Stearns&Wheler GHD, 1 Remington Park Drive, Cazenovia, New York 13035 USA

    Abstract: The original permit may have required in kind mitigation. Wetland plans were prepared. Wetland was constructed. Monitoring commenced. Wetland grew, stabilized, and evolved. Monitoring requirement was completed and wetland either accepted as meeting permit or as a created wetland, but not achieving the original requirements. What happens in the ensuing years will be directly related to the original wetland design considerations and components. What was the wetland creation site’s original makeup water source, existing and planned hydrologic regime, underlying geologic formations, existing or incorporated soil types, wetland size and configuration, landform character and surface features, plant species selection, local and watershed seed bank, invasive species susceptibility, exposure to sunlight and weather extremes, potential for wildlife browsing, and possibility for insect and disease infestation? If not considered in the original wetland design, these basic elements sometimes seemingly unrelated items will act in concert to potentially restrict the created ecosystem from achieving its long term design goals. An original marsh design may not evolve into scrub shrub habitat or a planted woodland may not develop planned forest habitat but remain as scrub shrub or wetland meadow for many years. Created wetland succession must therefore be considered to simply reflect the natural processes that influence the establishment and survival of natural ecosystems. Without awareness and application of the anticipated natural process in the wetland design, planning for a mandated mitigation wetland ecosystem can be only be considered a quess.

     #0 - TIDAL MARSH EXPORT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CARBON TO ESTUARIES: VARIATION ACROSS TIME, SPACE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Megonigal P.*, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, P.O. Box 28, Edgewater, MD 20754 ; Tzortziou M., Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, Univ of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742; Neale P., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, P.O. Box 28, Edgewater, MD 20754; Butterworth M., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, P.O. Box 28, Edgewater, MD 20754; Lee-Pow C., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, P.O. Box 28, Edgewater, MD 20754; Yamashita Y., Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199; Jaffe R., Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199

    Abstract: Tidal wetlands influence the biogeochemistry of adjacent estuarine waters by acting as sources and sinks of compounds. Many studies on tidal marshes as sources or sinks of carbon have focused on the quantity of dissolved and particulate compounds, with less attention to differences in composition. Likewise, there has been little attention to the temporal and spatial variability of marsh-estuarine tidal exchanges of carbon, or water column microbial responses to these tidal exchanges. We have been studying the chemical, spatial and temporal variability in marsh-estuarine tidal exchanges of carbon, for insights on how marsh responses to global change may affect estuaries. Our measurements showed a consistent net export of dissolved organic carbon from the marsh to the estuary during seasons of both low and high marsh plant biomass. Moreover, detailed optical measurements and preliminary mineralization studies suggest that dissolved organic matter exported from freshwater and brackish tidal marshes in the Chesapeake Bay is chemically distinct (more aromatic and of higher molecular weight) and more labile compared to estuarine-dominated organic matter. These patterns were consistent across seasons, but spatial variation was large, with plumes of elevated dissolved organic and inorganic carbon near a brackish tidal marsh that quickly declined in concentration with increasing distance into the estuary.

     #0 - QUANTITATIVE ANALYSES OF DRIVING FACTORS FOR SAND DESERTIFICATION IN GONGHE BASIN, QINGHAI PROVINCE, CHINA Zhang D.S.*, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs & Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China ; Gao S.Y., State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street 19,Beijing 100875, China; Lu R.J., Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs & Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China

    Abstract: Sand desertification is a serious global environment problem. Specialists and scholars have taken many studies on the arising, evolution and caused of sand desertification, but they have not agreed on a view. In this paper, the author try to quantitative analyze the driving factors of sand desertification in Gonghe Basin, Qinghai Province, China. After synthetical consideration, population going in for farming and animal husbandry, Livestock population, cultivated area, moderate gale days, precipitation, mean temperature and evaporation are selected as the driving factors of sand desertification to be analyzed. Principal components analyses of data from 1953-2002 suggested that sand desertification in Gonghe Basin is the result of unharmonious of ecology and economic under the effect of many factors including natural and anthropogenic factors. The first principal component PC1, whose proportion is 42.9%, mainly synthetic the information of population going in farming and animal husbandry, evaporation, livestock population, and cultivated land area. It shows that the anthropogenic factors have great effect to the sand desertification, population growth has strengthened the pressure on the environment system, and because of the unreasonable economical actions, such as cutting and digging firewood, and medicinal materials, and so on, the desertification degree has deepened and the desertificated area has been increased.





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